348 research outputs found

    New maximum principles for linear elliptic equations

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    We prove extensions of the estimates of Aleksandrov and Bakel'man for linear elliptic operators in Euclidean space Rn\Bbb{R}^{\it n} to inhomogeneous terms in LqL^q spaces for q<nq < n. Our estimates depend on restrictions on the ellipticity of the operators determined by certain subcones of the positive cone. We also consider some applications to local pointwise and L2L^2 estimates

    Lipid-related residual risk and renal function for occurrence and prognosis among patients with first-event acute coronary syndrome and normal LDL cholesterol

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>We investigated relationship of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high levels of triglycerides, and renal function for the odds, prognosis and survival following acute coronary events among patients with a first event and normal low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A case-control study based on 557 patients and 1086 matched control subjects was conducted. Case patients were followed up for survival with a median of 1.9 years. Participants in the higher quintiles of HDL-C had lower odds to develop acute coronary events (the adjusted odds ratios were 0.24 for the second, 0.24 for the third, 0.10 for the fourth and 0.05 for the fifth quintile). Patients with normal glomerular filtration rate were at a lower risk for all-cause death. However, a reverse association between triglycerides and death risk was found: patients with higher triglycerides were at a lower risk for all-cause death (adjusted relative risk, 0.38 for triglycerides ranging from 82 to 132.9 mg/dL, and 0.14 for triglycerides > = 133 mg/dL).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Low HDL-C was significantly associated with acute coronary events, and triglyceride levels as well as renal function were inversely related to all-cause deaths after the coronary event.</p

    Prediction model for high glycated hemoglobin concentration among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>This study aimed to construct a prediction model to identify subjects with high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels by incorporating anthropometric, lifestyle, clinical, and biochemical information in a large cross-sectional ethnic Chinese population in Taiwan from a health checkup center.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The prediction model was derived from multivariate logistic regression, and we evaluated the performance of the model in identifying the cases with high HbA1c levels (> = 7.0%). In total 17,773 participants (age > = 30 years) were recruited and 323 participants (1.8%) had high HbA1c levels. The study population was divided randomly into two parts, with 80% as the derivation data and 20% as the validation data.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The point-based clinical model, including age (maximal 8 points), sex (1 point), family history (3 points), body mass index (2 points), waist circumference (4 points), and systolic blood pressure (3 points) reached an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.723 (95% confidence interval, 0.677- 0.769) in the validation data. Adding biochemical measures such as triglycerides and HDL cholesterol improved the prediction power (AUC, 0.770 [0.723 - 0.817], <it>P </it>= < 0.001 compared with the clinical model). A cutoff point of 7 had a sensitivity of 0.76 to 0.96 and a specificity of 0.39 to 0.63 for the prediction model.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>A prediction model was constructed for the prevalent risk of high HbA1c, which could be useful in identifying high risk subjects for diabetes among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan.</p

    General Versus Spinal Anesthesia: Which is a Risk Factor for Octogenarian Hip Fracture Repair Patients?

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    SummaryBackgroundMost studies have shown no difference between the two types of anesthesia administered to hip fracture patients. This study compared postoperative morbidity and mortality in octogenarian patients who received either general or spinal anesthesia for hip fracture repair.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the hospital records of 335 octogenarian patients who received hip fracture repair in our teaching hospital between 2002 and 2006. A total of 167 and 168 patients received general and spinal anesthesia, respectively. Morbidity, mortality, and intraoperative and preoperative variables were compared between groups.ResultsThere were no mortality differences between spinal and general anesthesia groups. However, the overall morbidity was greater in the general anesthesia group than in the spinal anesthesia group (21/167 [12.6%] vs. 9/168 [5.4%]; p = 0.02). Respiratory system-related morbidity was also higher in the general anesthesia group than in the spinal anesthesia group (11/167 [6.6%] vs. 3/168 [1.8%]; p = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis revealed two significant predictors of postoperative morbidity: anesthesia type (general; odds ratio, 2.39) and preexisting respiratory diseases (odds ratio, 3.38).ConclusionGeneral anesthesia increased the risk of postoperative morbidity in octogenarian patients after hip fracture repair, and patients with preexisting respiratory diseases were especially vulnerable. Spinal anesthesia is strongly recommended in such individuals

    Self-supervised learning-based general laboratory progress pretrained model for cardiovascular event detection

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    The inherent nature of patient data poses several challenges. Prevalent cases amass substantial longitudinal data owing to their patient volume and consistent follow-ups, however, longitudinal laboratory data are renowned for their irregularity, temporality, absenteeism, and sparsity; In contrast, recruitment for rare or specific cases is often constrained due to their limited patient size and episodic observations. This study employed self-supervised learning (SSL) to pretrain a generalized laboratory progress (GLP) model that captures the overall progression of six common laboratory markers in prevalent cardiovascular cases, with the intention of transferring this knowledge to aid in the detection of specific cardiovascular event. GLP implemented a two-stage training approach, leveraging the information embedded within interpolated data and amplify the performance of SSL. After GLP pretraining, it is transferred for TVR detection. The proposed two-stage training improved the performance of pure SSL, and the transferability of GLP exhibited distinctiveness. After GLP processing, the classification exhibited a notable enhancement, with averaged accuracy rising from 0.63 to 0.90. All evaluated metrics demonstrated substantial superiority (p < 0.01) compared to prior GLP processing. Our study effectively engages in translational engineering by transferring patient progression of cardiovascular laboratory parameters from one patient group to another, transcending the limitations of data availability. The transferability of disease progression optimized the strategies of examinations and treatments, and improves patient prognosis while using commonly available laboratory parameters. The potential for expanding this approach to encompass other diseases holds great promise.Comment: published in IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health & Medicin

    Infectious Alopecia in a Dog Breeder After Renal Transplantation

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    Tinea capitis rarely occurs in renal transplant recipients. We report this living-related renal transplant patient receiving cyclosporine-based therapy who initially presented with severe exfoliation of the scalp with yellowish-white scales and marked hair loss. The lesions extended to the frontal area and both cheeks, resulting in several skin ulcers with perifocal erythematous inflammatory changes, and palpable cervical lymph nodes. A biopsy of a skin lesion revealed fungal infection and culture yielded Microsporum canis. The patient mentioned an outbreak of ringworm in her breeding dogs during this period. After adequate treatment of the patient and her infected animals with griseofulvin and disinfection of the environment, her skin lesions resolved dramatically, with regrowth of hair

    Total white blood cell count or neutrophil count predict ischemic stroke events among adult Taiwanese: report from a community-based cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: Evidence about whether white blood cell (WBC) or its subtypes can act as a biomarker to predict the ischemic stroke events in the general population is scanty, particularly in Asian populations. The aim of this study is to establish the predictive ability of total WBC count or subtypes for long-term ischemic stroke events in the cohort population in Taiwan. METHODS: The Chin-Shan Community Cohort Study began from 1990 to 2007 by recruiting 1782 men and 1814 women of Chinese ethnicity. Following a total of 3416 participants free from ischemic stroke events at baseline for a median of 15.9 years; we documented 187 new incident cases. RESULTS: The multivariate relative risk for the comparison of the participants in the fifth and first WBC count quintiles was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–2.73; P for trend=0.03), and the corresponding relative risk for neutrophil count was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.13–3.29; P for trend=0.02). The discriminative ability by WBC and neutrophil counts were similar (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.600 for adding WBC, 0.610 for adding neutrophils, 0.595 for traditional risk factor model). In addition, the net reclassification improvement (NRI) values between the neutrophil and white blood cell count models were not significant (NRI, =-2.60%, P=0.35), indicating the similar discrimination performance for both WBC and neutrophil counts. CONCLUSIONS: WBC and neutrophil count had a similar ability to predict the long-term ischemic stroke events among Taiwanese

    Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Evidence of predictive power of various fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome was scanty. We evaluated the role of various fatty acids, including saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, transfat, n-6 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Taiwan.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A nested case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control subjects. For saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and transfat, the higher the concentration the higher the risk for metabolic syndrome: participants in the highest quintile had a 2.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.97) higher risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the participants in higher EPA quintiles were less likely to have the risk of metabolic syndrome (adjusted risk, 0.46 [0.34 to 0.61] for the fifth quintile). Participants in the highest risk group (low EPA and high transfat) had a 2.36-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.03), compared with those in the lowest risk group (high EPA and low transfat). For prediction power, the area under ROC curves increased from 0.926 in the baseline model to 0.928 after adding fatty acids. The net reclassification improvement for metabolic syndrome risk was substantial for saturated fat (2.1%, <it>P </it>= 0.05).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Plasma fatty acid components improved the prediction of the metabolic syndrome risk in Taiwan.</p

    Higher power of sensorimotor rhythm is associated with better performance in skilled air-pistol shooters

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    Cheng M-Y, Wang K-P, Hung C-L, et al. Higher power of sensorimotor rhythm is associated with better performance in skilled air-pistol shooters. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2017;32:47-53.Objectives Psychomotor efficiency has been linked with processing efficiency during sport performance. Reduced cortical activity in the sensorimotor area has been related to less variability in the movement preparation that is conducive to skilled motor performance. This study proposes sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), 12–15 Hz of the electroencephalography (EEG) in the sensorimotor area, may be used to investigate psychomotor efficiency in sports performance. Method Twenty-four skilled air pistol shooters were recruited to fire 40 shots while EEG and shooting accuracy were recorded. Results The data show that improved performance of skilled shooters is associated with higher SMR power during the last second and lower coherence on high alpha power at Fz-T3 before action initiation. A negative relationship is also exhibited between the SMR power and the shooting performance during the aiming. Conclusions This finding suggests that reduced interference from sensorimotor processing, as reflected by elevated SMR power, may be related to improved processing efficiency during the aiming period. We conclude that SMR may be used to understand psychomotor efficiency underlying air-pistol shooting performance
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