257 research outputs found

    How do foreign entrepreneurs adapt to local corruption norms in the Middle East? Institutional multiplicities and individual adaptation

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    Foreign entrepreneurs encounter institutional complexities resulting from differences between their home and host countries. On one hand, foreign entrepreneurs must adapt to local norms in a host environment that might be novel and different; on the other, foreign entrepreneurs bring institutional legacies from their home environments. In this article, we critically examine how such tensions affect norm adaptation by foreign entrepreneurs, focusing upon their attitudes towards corruption–defined as corruption propensity. While imprints from home institutions can be ‘sticky’ and persistent, learning about host institutions requires foreign entrepreneurs to adapt their corruption propensity. We find that corruption propensity has an inverted U-shaped relationship with performance and conclude by analysing the implications of such propensity.</div

    Remineralization Of Enamel Lesions Proximal To Dentin Cavitated Lesions Restored With Resin Modified Glass Ionomer In The Primary Dentition

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    Poster presentation of research proposal addressing: the evaluation of dental hard tissue remineralization proximal to glass ionomer restorations. It is hypothesized that glass ionomer used in class II restorations will provide significantly more bioavailable fluoride and hard tissue remineralization on the proximal surface of adjacent teeth as compared to the same restoration completed using resin composite materials.https://dune.une.edu/cdm_studpost/1001/thumbnail.jp

    Additional file 7: Table S2. of Functional characterization of the active Mutator-like transposable element, Muta1 from the mosquito Aedes aegypti

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    Target Site Duplications (TSDs) and locations of Muta1 transpositions in yeast. (DOCX 96 kb

    Additional file 10: Figure S8. of Functional characterization of the active Mutator-like transposable element, Muta1 from the mosquito Aedes aegypti

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    Footprints from Muta1NA1 excision events. Arrows indicate the Muta1NA1 insertion, length and sequence of the TSD in each assay (shown above the arrows). TSD or sequences derived from TSDs are in bold, sequences derived from Muta1NA1 are underlined, the number of recovered events is on the right. (A) Footprints of Muta1NA1 excision from the ADE2 5’ UTR without donor site TSD. (B-D) Footprints of Muta1NA1 excision from the ADE2 5’ UTR with different 8 bp TSD sequences. (B) TTCAATAG; (C) CGATTCAA; (D) GGTAACTC. (E-G) Footprints of Muta1NA1 excision from the ADE2 5’ UTR with different 9 bp TSD sequences. (E) TCGATTCAA, (F) CGGTAACTC, (G) ATTCAATAG. (H-I) Footprints of Muta1NA1 excision from the ADE2 5’UTR with the transposase W401F mutation. (H) the 8bp TSD TTCAATAG was used. (I) the 9bp TSD ATTGAATAG was used. (TIF 665 kb

    Additional file 6: Figure S5. of Functional characterization of the active Mutator-like transposable element, Muta1 from the mosquito Aedes aegypti

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    Analysis of excision and reinsertion events. (A) PCR analysis of the Muta1NA1 excision sites from ADE2 revertants using flanking primers. Expected band size is 820bp (control) or 350bp, with or without Muta1NA1, respectively. (B) Transposon display analysis of Muta1HIS reinsertion in the yeast genome. DNA bands are amplicons consisting of flanking sequences of the reinsertion sites and part of the TIR. PWL89A-Muta1HIS vector is used as control. Arrows indicate the polymorphic bands that represent the insertion of Muta1HIS in different genomic locations. (TIF 413 kb

    Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Axially Chiral <i>o</i>-Iodoanilides by Phase-Transfer Catalyzed Alkylations

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    Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral <i>o</i>-iodoacrylanilides and <i>N</i>-allyl-<i>o</i>-iodoanilides as useful chiral building blocks was achieved via chiral quaternary ammonium salt-catalyzed <i>N</i>-alkylations under phase-transfer conditions. The transition-state structure for the present reaction is discussed on the basis of the X-ray crystal structure of ammonium anilide

    Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Axially Chiral <i>o</i>-Iodoanilides by Phase-Transfer Catalyzed Alkylations

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    Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral <i>o</i>-iodoacrylanilides and <i>N</i>-allyl-<i>o</i>-iodoanilides as useful chiral building blocks was achieved via chiral quaternary ammonium salt-catalyzed <i>N</i>-alkylations under phase-transfer conditions. The transition-state structure for the present reaction is discussed on the basis of the X-ray crystal structure of ammonium anilide

    Management Modalities for Traumatic Macular Hole: A Systematic Review and Single-Arm Meta-Analysis

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    <p><i>Purposes</i>: The purposes of this study were to (i) determine macular hole (MH) closure rates and visual outcomes by comparing two methods of managing traumatic MH (TMH)—an event resulting in severe loss of visual acuity (VA); (ii) characterize patients who undergo spontaneous TMH closure; (iii) determine which TMH patients should be observed before resorting to surgical repair; and (iv) elucidate factors that influence postoperative visual outcomes.</p> <p><i>Methods</i>: Studies (n=10) of patients who were managed by surgery or observation for TMH were meta-analyzed retrospectively. Management modalities included <i>surgical repair</i> (surgery group) and <i>observation</i> for spontaneous hole closure (observation group). In addition, a 12-case series of articles (1990–2014) on spontaneous hole closure was statistically summarized. SAS and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) (version 3.0) were used for analysis.</p> <p><i>Results</i>: For surgery group patients, the fixed-model pooled event rate for hole closure was 0.919 (range, 0.861–0.954) and for observation group patients, 0.368 (range, 0.236–0.448). The random-model pooled event rate for improvement of visual acuity (VA) for surgery group patients was 0.748 (range, 0.610–0.849) and for observation group patients, 0.505 (range, 0.397–0.613). For patients in both groups, the mean age of spontaneous closure was 18.71±10.64 years; mean size of TMHs, 0.18±0.06 decimal degrees (DD); and mean time for hole closure, 3.38±3.08 months. The pooled event rate for visual improvement was 0.748 (0.610–0.849).</p> <p><i>Conclusions</i>: Hole closure and VA improvement rates of surgery group patients were significantly higher than those for observation group patients. Patients of ≤ 24 years of age with MH sizes of ≤ 0.2DD were more likely to achieve spontaneous hole closure. The interval of time from injury to surgery was statistically significantly associated with the level of visual improvement.</p

    Aerobic Oxidative Carbonylation of Enamides by Merging Palladium with Photoredox Catalysis

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    Intramolecular oxidative carbonylation reaction is an efficient approach for constructing heterocycles. However, stoichiometric amount of hypervalent metal salts is usually required in this transformation. Here we show an aerobic intramolecular oxidative carbonylation of enamides by combining palladium and photoredox catalysis. The dual catalytic system enables oxygen directly as oxidant, which provides a mild and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of 1,3-oxazin-6-ones

    A system justification theory of entrepreneurial attitudinal change during a crisis

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    Entrepreneurship resilience during a crisis is an important research area. However, prior research has not examined cognitive antecedents of entrepreneurial resilience. Using the 2014 oil price crisis in the Middle East as a natural experiment, we draw on system justification theory to understand why and how entrepreneurs differ in the extent of their attitudinal changes toward corruption. We find foreign entrepreneurs substantially increased their willingness to engage in corruption whereas local entrepreneurs did not. Among foreign entrepreneurs, corruption willingness increases more among those from countries where corruption is not the norm, than those from more corrupt home countries
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