4,105 research outputs found

    Patterns and bifurcations in low-Prandtl number Rayleigh-Benard convection

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    We present a detailed bifurcation structure and associated flow patterns for low-Prandtl number (P=0.0002,0.002,0.005,0.02P=0.0002, 0.002, 0.005, 0.02) Rayleigh-B\'{e}nard convection near its onset. We use both direct numerical simulations and a 30-mode low-dimensional model for this study. We observe that low-Prandtl number (low-P) convection exhibits similar patterns and chaos as zero-P convection \cite{pal:2009}, namely squares, asymmetric squares, oscillating asymmetric squares, relaxation oscillations, and chaos. At the onset of convection, low-P convective flows have stationary 2D rolls and associated stationary and oscillatory asymmetric squares in contrast to zero-P convection where chaos appears at the onset itself. The range of Rayleigh number for which stationary 2D rolls exist decreases rapidly with decreasing Prandtl number. Our results are in qualitative agreement with results reported earlier

    Simultaneous EUV and Radio Observations of Bidirectional Plasmoids Ejection During Magnetic Reconnection

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    We present a multiwavelength study of the X-class flare, which occurred in active region (AR) NOAA 11339 on 3 November 2011. The EUV images recorded by SDO/AIA show the activation of a remote filament (located north of the AR) with footpoint brightenings about 50 min prior to the flare occurrence. The kinked filament rises-up slowly and after reaching a projected height of ~49 Mm, it bends and falls freely near the AR, where the X-class flare was triggered. Dynamic radio spectrum from the Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer (GBSRBS) shows simultaneous detection of both positive and negative drifting pulsating structures (DPSs) in the decimetric radio frequencies (500-1200 MHz) during the impulsive phase of the flare. The global negative DPSs in solar flares are generally interpreted as a signature of electron acceleration related to the upward moving plasmoids in the solar corona. The EUV images from AIA 94 \AA reveal the ejection of multiple plasmoids, which move simultaneously upward and downward in the corona during the magnetic reconnection. The estimated speeds of the upward and downward moving plasmoids are ~152-362 and ~83-254 km/s, respectively. These observations strongly support the recent numerical simulations of the formation and interaction of multiple plasmoids due to tearing of the current-sheet structure. On the basis of our analysis, we suggest that the simultaneous detection of both the negative and positive DPSs is most likely generated by the interaction/coalescence of the multiple plasmoids moving upward and downward along the current-sheet structure during the magnetic reconnection process. Moreover, the differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the active region reveals presence of a hot flux-rope structure (visible in AIA 131 and 94 \AA) prior to the flare initiation and ejection of the multi-temperature plasmoids during the flare impulsive phase.Comment: A&A (accepted), 13 pages, 9 figure

    Eruption of a plasma blob, associated M-class flare, and large-scale EUV wave observed by SDO

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    We present a multiwavelength study of the formation and ejection of a plasma blob and associated EUV waves in AR NOAA 11176, observed by SDO/AIA and STEREO on 25 March 2011. SDO/AIA images clearly show the formation and ejection of a plasma blob from the lower solar atmosphere at ~9 min prior to the onset of the M1.0 flare. This onset of the M-class flare happened at the site of the blob formation, while the blob was rising in a parabolic path with an average speed of ~300 km/s. The blob also showed twisting and de-twisting motion in the lower corona, and the blob speed varied from ~10-540 km/s. The faster and slower EUV wavefronts were observed in front of the plasma blob during its impulsive acceleration phase. The faster EUV wave propagated with a speed of ~785 to 1020 km/s, whereas the slower wavefront speed varied in between ~245 and 465 km/s. The timing and speed of the faster wave match the shock speed estimated from the drift rate of the associated type II radio burst. The faster wave experiences a reflection by the nearby AR NOAA 11177. In addition, secondary waves were observed (only in the 171 \AA channel), when the primary fast wave and plasma blob impacted the funnel-shaped coronal loops. The HMI magnetograms revealed the continuous emergence of new magnetic flux along with shear flows at the site of the blob formation. It is inferred that the emergence of twisted magnetic fields in the form of arch-filaments/"anemone-type" loops is the likely cause for the plasma blob formation and associated eruption along with the triggering of M-class flare. Furthermore, the faster EUV wave formed ahead of the blob shows the signature of fast-mode MHD wave, whereas the slower wave seems to be generated by the field line compression by the plasma blob. The secondary wave trains originated from the funnel-shaped loops are probably the fast magnetoacoustic waves.Comment: A&A (in press), 22 pages, 13 figure

    Friedmann model with viscous cosmology in modified f(R,T)f(R,T) gravity theory

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    In this paper, we introduce bulk viscosity in the formalism of modified gravity theory in which the gravitational action contains a general function f(R,T)f(R,T), where RR and TT denote the curvature scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively within the framework of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model. As an equation of state for prefect fluid, we take p=(γ1)ρp=(\gamma-1)\rho, where 0γ20 \leq \gamma \leq 2 and viscous term as a bulk viscosity due to isotropic model, of the form ζ=ζ0+ζ1H\zeta =\zeta_{0}+\zeta_{1}H, where ζ0\zeta_{0} and ζ1\zeta_{1} are constants, and HH is the Hubble parameter. The exact non-singular solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained with non- viscous and viscous fluids, respectively by assuming a simplest particular model of the form of f(R,T)=R+2f(T)f(R,T) = R+2f(T), where f(T)=αTf(T)=\alpha T ( α\alpha is a constant). A big-rip singularity is also observed for γ<0\gamma<0 at a finite value of cosmic time under certain constraints. We study all possible scenarios with the possible positive and negative ranges of α\alpha to analyze the expansion history of the universe. It is observed that the universe accelerates or exhibits transition from decelerated phase to accelerated phase under certain constraints of ζ0\zeta_0 and ζ1\zeta_1. We compare the viscous models with the non-viscous one through the graph plotted between scale factor and cosmic time and find that bulk viscosity plays the major role in the expansion of the universe. A similar graph is plotted for deceleration parameter with non-viscous and viscous fluids and find a transition from decelerated to accelerated phase with some form of bulk viscosity.Comment: 19 pages, 3 figures, the whole paper has been revised to improve the quality of paper. Some references added. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1307.4262 by other author

    Multiwavelength Observations of an Eruptive Flare: Evidence for Blast Waves and Break-out

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    Images of an east-limb flare on 3 November 2010 taken in the 131 \AA\ channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide a convincing example of a long current sheet below an erupting plasmoid, as predicted by the standard magnetic reconnection model of eruptive flares. However, the 171 \AA\ and 193 \AA\ channel images hint at an alternative scenario. These images reveal that large-scale waves with velocity greater than 1000 km/s propagated alongside and ahead of the erupting plasmoid. Just south of the plasmoid, the waves coincided with type-II radio emission, and to the north, where the waves propagated along plume-like structures, there was increased decimetric emission. Initially the cavity around the hot plasmoid expanded. Later, when the erupting plasmoid reached the height of an overlying arcade system, the plasmoid structure changed, and the lower parts of the cavity collapsed inwards. Hot loops appeared alongside and below the erupting plasmoid. We consider a scenario in which the fast waves and the type-II emission were a consequence of a flare blast wave, and the cavity collapse and the hot loops resulted from the break-out of the flux rope through an overlying coronal arcade.Comment: Solar Physics (published), 15 pages, 8 figure