550 research outputs found

    Characterization of cavity dwelling honey bees using enzyme polymorphism

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    The most intensively studied of all insects are perhaps honey bees. Recognition of valid honey bee species has been difficult for several reasons. Most important reason has been the movement of honey bees all over the world for bee keeping which has resulted in their hybridization. Another problem is that scientists and bee keepers do not always use the same criteria for identification. While scientists are concerned with the biological parameters, bee keepers are more interested in behavioral traits. Even within a single species there are locally adapted populations called geographic ecotypes, which differ from each other in several morphological, biological, molecular and economic characteristics. Beside behavioral, morphological and cytogenetic evidence, electrophoretic data provide strong support for phylogenetic relationships among insects. Apis cerana and Apis mellifera are the Eastern and the Western cavity dwelling honey bees. Their habit of nesting in dark, enclosed spaces made it possible for man to domesticate them and to use them as a highly commercial industrial enterprise.  A. mellifera is thought to have originated in the African tropics or Asia and colder European climates. The recent movement of bees by European settlers for bee keeping has resulted not only in worldwide distribution of Apis mellifera but has also led to some degree of hybridization between subspecies. On the other hand there has also occurred isolation of populations either by distance or by barrier giving rises to newer subspecies or races. To differentiate these honey bees on the basis of biochemical polymorphism alcohol dehydrogenase provided significant results and was observed to be an additional marker for the species

    A new species from Genus Megachile Subgenus Callomegachile (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) from Chandigarh and Punjab plains

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    A new species Megachile pseudodisjuncta of the bee is being reported from Genus Megachile and Subgenus Callomegachile. It bears a close resemblance to M. disjuncta from which it has been distinguished on the basis of certain morphological characters and genitalia. Megachilid bees bear utmost significance because they are very good pollinators of both cultivated and wild fauna. Consequently, their taxonomic identification and conservation are very crucial. The detailed taxonomically important morphological characters of both the species were studied and photographed. Male sternum and genitalia were studied microscopically and photographed. The material examined and floral associations have also been presented in the paper

    Changes in protein profile and RNA content of Apis mellifera worker pupa on parasitization with Tropilaelaps clareae

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    Tropilaelaps infestation of Apis mellifera pupa caused reduction in total protein concentration of the infested pupa. This may be due to protein feeding by mite. The additional protein fractions observed by SDS-PAGE and the difference in the nature of free amino acids suggested synthesis of newer proteins perhaps related to the stress response of the host. This opinion is strengthened by the increase in concentration of RNA ( 184.580±36.987 in non-infested pupa and 293.402±50.329 in infested pups) observed in the present study which was responsible for increased transcription of genes encoding antiparasite peptides as reported by other workers

    A study on biochemical composition of the sting gland (poison gland) and the reservoir (poison sac) of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea F. workers

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    The glands associated with the sting apparatus of worker honey bee Apis florea produce Venom which is known to be composed of a wide spectrum of biomolecules ranging from biogenic amines to peptides and proteins. The Venom apparatus showed the presence of two important associated exocrine glands i.e. Venom gland and Dufors gland. The secretions of both glands are apocrine and are released into the lumen to be stored in the venom sac. The presence of some exocrine cells in the distal part of venom sac which is otherwise known to only store the component of Venom gland led to the present study. The present study that there were considerable differences in the biochemical composition of Venom gland and Venom sac secretions of Apis species The concentration of lipids (Sting gland =1.423±0.0001 and Reservoir = 1.21±0.0067), proteins (Sting gland=0.440±0.0226, Reservoir = 0.390± 0.032), activity of acid phosphatase (Sting gland=112.09±21.100, Reservoir=22.63±1.467) and hexokinase (Sting gland=20.7±4.016, Reservoir=10.66±2.465) was found to be more in case of Venom gland while cholesterol(Sting gland=0.138±0.0161 reservoir=0.324±0.00323), glucose (Sting gland=189±1.31, Reservoir=321±7.19), free amino acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase (Sting gland=21.03±0.195 Reservoir=22.4±0.685) was more in Venom sac. Glycogen was absent in both Venom gland and Venom sac of Apis species as confirmed by the absence of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. It is established from the present study that Venom sac also secretes various biochemicals and enzymes which are added to the total Venom

    Description of a new species of Neocressionella Gupta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from North western India

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    A new species, Megachile (Neocressionella) patialensis is described from Patiala, India. Full description of male with their floral relationship, morphological measurements and specimens examined is provided. Knowledge of the life history and nesting habits of Megachile bees will pave the way for their manipulation so that these can be used to increase pollination. Documentation of the genera and species will increase our knowledge of the biodiversity of these bees in the study area

    Insecticidal effects of aqueous extracts of wild pomegranate peel and seed (Punica granatum L.) against rose aphids, Macrosiphum rosaeformis

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    Efficacy of wild pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit peel and seeds aqueous extract was evaluated for the control of common insect pests aphids (Macrosiphum rosaeformis) and for its influence on useful non-target predators viz., Coccinella septempunctata. Lethal doses of daru peel and seed suggested these became more toxic to aphids after 24 hr of exposure. A significant difference was obtained in percentage aphids reached to untreated leaves over peel extract treated leaves (23:57 and 23:77) and seed extract treated leaves (7:80 and 17:80) at 90 and 180 min time intervals in food choice assays. No significant effect was observed against Coccinella. LC50 values of daru peel and seed extracts along with mixture of three flavonoids (Kaempferol, Quercetin and Myricetin) were assessed at 48 hr values were 34.9, 4.7 and 0.6 mg/ml and at 72 hr these were 16.1, 0.000001 and 0.00001 mg/ml, respectively. In both the cases field bioassays showed affectivity till 7 DAT. Field data indicated that only X1(1 mg/ml) and X2 (0.1 mg/ml) concentrations of mixture were effective till 11 days after treatment. These are the first reports of the toxic effect of wild pomegranate (daru) fruit peel aqueous extract against M. rosaeformis, hence the study suggests possible usage of Punica granatum peel for the control of rose aphids

    Biochemical changes in haemolymph of Apis mellifera L. drone under the influence of cell phone radiations

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    The effects of Electromagnetic radiations (EMR) are being felt by wildlife and the environment as a whole, birds, bees, worms, trees are being affected. So the main focus of present study was carried out to analyse the influence of cell phone radiations on the biochemical aspects of drone of Apis mellifera L. The drone was exposed for 30 mins to radiations using live cell phones kept in working mode with tape recorder at the speaker end and positive response at the receiver’s end. The results of the treatment were analyzed and compared with the control. The concentration of various biomolecules increased from 1.65 mg/ml to 2.75 mg/ml for carbohydrates , 3.74 mg/ml to 4.85 mg/ml for proteins and from 0.325 mg/ml to 1.33 mg/ml for lipids under the influence of EMR

    Effect of nutritional supplements on queen cell production in honey bee (Apis mellifera)

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    Honey bees are an important means of earning a living both at small and commercial levels. Maximum benefits can be obtained from strong colonies and in order to maintain strong colonies a good beekeeper requeens the colonies every second year. This requires a number of queens. The advances in beekeeping technology have made it possible to rear queens artificially or naturally. There is scope for improvement of these methods. The aim of the present study was to investigate if nutritional supplements could facilitate queen cell production in spring and autumn seasons. Becosule, thiamine, yeast and sugar solutions were fed to the honey bee colonies. The greatest number of queen cells was produced in the yeast fed colonies in spring. Bee mortality was observed in case of becosule. Perhaps the formulation contained some components which were toxic to honey bees. The effect on queen cell production by the different nutrients was in the order of Yeast > Thiamine > Becosule

    Studies on the effect of ethanolic extract of propolis in BALB/c mice

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    Propolis is widely used since ages for the treatment of various ailments. Present study focussed on the toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of propolis on BALB/c mice. The effect of different concentrations of propolis (300, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) was analysed by studying the biochemical, haematological and histological changes in mice for 28 days. No significant difference in various parameters were observed in groups of mice treated with propolis and the normal control (p>0.05). Histological findings on liver, spleen, kidney and brain revealed normal architecture. The ethanolic extract of propolis did not produce significant toxic effect in mice and hence can be utilized for nutraceuticals formulations

    PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF BEE PROPOLIS AGAINST ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS (RIFAMPICIN AND ISONIAZID)-INDUCED HEMATOLOGICAL TOXICITY IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

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    ABSTRACTObjective: Protective effect of bee propolis against anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs (rifampicin and isoniazid)-induced hematological toxicity in SpragueDawley (SD) rats.Methods: Experimental male SD rats weighing 180±20 g were randomly assigned into eight groups (n=6), the Group 1 served as control; Group 2received 200 mg bee propolis/kg body weight; Groups 3, 5, and 7 were treated with drugs 100 mg rifampicin/kg body weight, 50 mg isoniazid/kgbody weight, and 100 mg rifampicin+50 mg isoniazid/kg body weight, respectively. Groups 4, 6, and 8 were treatment groups receiving 200 mg beepropolis/kg body weight+100 mg rifampicin/kg body weight, 200 mg bee propolis/kg body weight+50 mg isoniazid/kg body weight, and 200 mg beepropolis/kg body weight+100 mg rifampicin+50 mg isoniazid/kg body weight, respectively. All the treatments were given for 30 days, and then, therats were sacrificed under light esthesia by cervical dislocation and blood was collected for physiological studies.Results: Bee propolis supplementation (200 mg/kg body weight) showed increased level of hemoglobin with respect to rifampicin (15.45%),isoniazid (11.34%), and rifampicin plus isoniazid (5.04%) administered groups after 30 days of treatment. Moreover, the decreased level of red bloodcell count and white blood cell count by anti-TB drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, and rifampicin plus isoniazid together was also elevated in treatmentgroup with bee propolis.Conclusion: Coadministration of propolis (200 mg bee propolis/kg body weight) with drugs helped modulate the toxic effects by restoring testedvalues to near normal.Keywords: Propolis, Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Hemoglobin, Red blood cell count, White blood cell count
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