10 research outputs found

    Circulating Total and Active Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythomatosus

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    We investigated the serum concentration of total metalloproteinase-9 (tMPP-9), active MMP-9 (aMMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in a group of 41 patients with SLE and 20 healthy controls. Serum levels of tMMP-9 and TIMP-1 were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and aMMP-9 by fluorometric assay. The tMMP-9 level was lower in SLE patients (mean 262 ng/mL) than in healthy volunteers (mean 325 ng/mL) (P = .048). Similarly, aMMP-9 level was lower in SLE patients (mean 121 ng/mL) than in control group (mean 169 ng/mL) (P = .0355) and lower in active SLE (mean 54 ng/mL) than in inactive disease (mean 99 ng/mL) (P = .033). TIMP-1 level was also lower in SLE patients (mean 181 ng/mL) than in control group (mean 233 ng/mL) (P = .004). In SLE patients, a positive correlation was found between tMMP-9 and aMMP-9 (ρ = 0.568; P = .001). We also found a positive correlation of tMMP-9 and TIMP-1 with VEGF concentrations (ρ = 0.450, P = .005 and ρ = 0.387; P = .018, resp). tMMP-9, aMMP-9, and TIMP-1 serum levels are lower in SLE patients than in healthy control group

    The differences in RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expression between late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory cycle phases.

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    RCAS1 expression is related to the regulation of activated immune cells and to connective tissue remodeling within the endometrium. DFF45 seems to play an important role in the apoptotic process, most likely by acting through the regulation of DNA fragmentation. Its expression changes within the endometrium seem to be related to the resistance of endometrial cells to apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expressions during ovulation and the implantation period. RCAS1 and DFF45 expression was assessed by the Western-blot method in endometrial tissue samples obtained from 20 patients. The tissue samples were classified according to the menstrual cycle phases in which they were collected, with a division into three phases: late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory. The lowest level of RCAS1 and the highest level of DFF45 endometrial expression was found during the early secretory cycle phase. Statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 endometrial expression was identified in the endometrium during the late proliferative as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. Moreover, statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 expression was found in the endometrium during the mid-secretory as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. The preparation for implantation process in the endometrium is preceded by dynamic changes in endometrial ECM and results from the proper interaction between endometrial and immune cells. The course of this process is conditioned by the immunomodulating activity of endometrial cells and their resistance to immune-mediated apoptosis. These dynamic changes are closely related to RCAS1 and DFF45 expression alterations

    cDNA sequencing improves the detection of P53 missense mutations in colorectal cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Recently published data showed discrepancies beteween <it>P53 </it>cDNA and DNA sequencing in glioblastomas. We hypothesised that similar discrepancies may be observed in other human cancers.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>To this end, we analyzed 23 colorectal cancers for <it>P53 </it>mutations and gene expression using both DNA and cDNA sequencing, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We found <it>P53 </it>gene mutations in 16 cases (15 missense and 1 nonsense). Two of the 15 cases with missense mutations showed alterations based only on cDNA, and not DNA sequencing. Moreover, in 6 of the 15 cases with a cDNA mutation those mutations were difficult to detect in the DNA sequencing, so the results of DNA analysis alone could be misinterpreted if the cDNA sequencing results had not also been available. In all those 15 cases, we observed a higher ratio of the mutated to the wild type template by cDNA analysis, but not by the DNA analysis. Interestingly, a similar overexpression of <it>P53 </it>mRNA was present in samples with and without <it>P53 </it>mutations.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>In terms of colorectal cancer, those discrepancies might be explained under three conditions: 1, overexpression of mutated <it>P53 </it>mRNA in cancer cells as compared with normal cells; 2, a higher content of cells without <it>P53 </it>mutation (normal cells and cells showing <it>K-RAS </it>and/or <it>APC </it>but not <it>P53 </it>mutation) in samples presenting <it>P53 </it>mutation; 3, heterozygous or hemizygous mutations of <it>P53 </it>gene. Additionally, for heterozygous mutations unknown mechanism(s) causing selective overproduction of mutated allele should also be considered. Our data offer new clues for studying discrepancy in <it>P53 </it>cDNA and DNA sequencing analysis.</p

    Glioblastoma-derived spheroid cultures as an experimental model for analysis of EGFR anomalies

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    Glioblastoma cell cultures in vitro are frequently used for investigations on the biology of tumors or new therapeutic approaches. Recent reports have emphasized the importance of cell culture type for maintenance of tumor original features. Nevertheless, the ability of GBM cells to preserve EGFR overdosage in vitro remains controversial. Our experimental approach was based on quantitative analysis of EGFR gene dosage in vitro both at DNA and mRNA level. Real-time PCR data were verified with a FISH method allowing for a distinction between EGFR amplification and polysomy 7. We demonstrated that EGFR amplification accompanied by EGFRwt overexpression was maintained in spheroids, but these phenomena were gradually lost in adherent culture. We noticed a rapid decrease of EGFR overdosage already at the initial stage of cell culture establishment. In contrast to EGFR amplification, the maintenance of polysomy 7 resulted in EGFR locus gain and stabilization even in long-term adherent culture in serum presence. Surprisingly, the EGFRwt expression pattern did not reflect the latter phenomenon and we observed no overexpression of the tested gene. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that expression of the truncated variant of receptor—EGFRvIII was preserved in GBM-derived spheroids at a level comparable to the initial tumor tissue. Our findings are especially important in the light of research using glioblastoma culture as the experimental model for testing novel EGFR-targeted therapeutics in vitro, with special emphasis on the most common mutated form of receptor—EGFRvIII

    The Identification of Hotspots in the Bioenergy Production Chain

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    Increasing interest in bioenergy production in the context of the transition towards a circular economy and the promotion of renewable energy has produced demands for optimization of the value chain of energy production to improve the environmental viability of the system. Hotspot analysis based on life cycle assessment (LCA) contributes to the mitigation of environmental burdens and is a very important step towards the implementation of a bioeconomy strategy. In this study, hotspots identified using two parallel pathways: a literature review and empirical research on four different biogas plants located in Poland. LCA and energy return on investment (EROI) analysis of the whole bioenergy production chain were considered to identify unit processes or activities that are highly damaging to the environment. The biogas plants differ mainly in the type of raw materials used as an input and in the method of delivery. The results show that the most impactful processes are those in the delivery of biomass, especially road transport by tractor. The second contributor was crop cultivation, where fossil fuels are also used. Although the EROI analysis indicates a negligible impact of transport on the energy efficiency of bioenergy plants, the environmental burden of biomass transportation should be taken into consideration when planning further measures to support the development of the bioeconomy

    Identification of circulating regulatory T lymphocytes with membrane markers — a new multiparameter flow cytometry protocol

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    Introduction. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a unique CD4+ T cell subset involved in the regulation of immune responses. The traditional immunophenotype used to define Tregs includes CD4+CD25high and the expression of the transcription factor Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3). A complex technique of intracellular staining, transient upregulation of FoxP3 in activated conventional T lymphocytes (Tcons), and the omission of naïve CD45RA+ Tregs with downregulated FoxP3 activity but a demethylated FOXP3 promoter region may lead to inaccurate quantification. In an attempt to meet the need for a reliable and simplified enumeration strategy, we investigated different membrane markers to capture the entire Treg compartment and to identify subpopulations of Tregs. Material and methods. Analyses were performed on whole blood. Tested gating strategies were based on the expression of the following membrane antigens: CD45, CD3, CD4, CD25, CD127, CD26, CD6, CD39, CD71, HLA-DR, CD45RA and CD31. Double controls with FoxP3 were performed. Results. The final enumeration panel consisted of the membrane markers CD45, CD3, CD4, CD25, CD127, CD26, CD39, CD45RA and CD31. A deep analysis of T cells with the CD4+CD25+CD127low/-CD26low/-CD45RAimmunophenotype revealed high expression of FoxP3 and/or CD39, while cells with the naïve immunophenotype, CD4+CD25+CD127low/-CD26low/-CD45RA+, presented lower expression of suppressor markers. Antigen CD31 is considered to be a valuable membrane marker of thymus-derived Tregs. Conclusions. The presented 9-color panel that can be easily applied in laboratories enables reliable enumeration of Tregs with additional information about the functionality, maturity and origin of T regulatory cells