719 research outputs found

    Rapid-response, light-exposure control system

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    Rapid-response electro-optical, light exposure control system, will maintain the light reaching a camera film or other light-sensitive detector at essentially constant level, despite wide variations in the brightness of the light source. The system permits detailed photographic or photoelectric recording of the phenomenon over a range of brightnesses

    A phenomenological approach to the simulation of metabolism and proliferation dynamics of large tumour cell populations

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    A major goal of modern computational biology is to simulate the collective behaviour of large cell populations starting from the intricate web of molecular interactions occurring at the microscopic level. In this paper we describe a simplified model of cell metabolism, growth and proliferation, suitable for inclusion in a multicell simulator, now under development (Chignola R and Milotti E 2004 Physica A 338 261-6). Nutrients regulate the proliferation dynamics of tumor cells which adapt their behaviour to respond to changes in the biochemical composition of the environment. This modeling of nutrient metabolism and cell cycle at a mesoscopic scale level leads to a continuous flow of information between the two disparate spatiotemporal scales of molecular and cellular dynamics that can be simulated with modern computers and tested experimentally.Comment: 58 pages, 7 figures, 3 tables, pdf onl

    Chloroplast Genome Sequence of the Moss Torula ruralis: Gene Content, Polymorphism, and Structural Arrangement Relative to Other Green Plant Chloroplast Genomes

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    Background Tortula ruralis, a widely distributed species in the moss family Pottiaceae, is increasingly used as a model organism for the study of desiccation tolerance and mechanisms of cellular repair. In this paper, we present the chloroplast genome sequence of T. ruralis, only the second published chloroplast genome for a moss, and the first for a vegetatively desiccation-tolerant plant. Results The Tortula chloroplast genome is ~123,500 bp, and differs in a number of ways from that of Physcomitrella patens, the first published moss chloroplast genome. For example, Tortula lacks the ~71 kb inversion found in the large single copy region of the Physcomitrella genome and other members of the Funariales. Also, the Tortula chloroplast genome lacks petN, a gene found in all known land plant plastid genomes. In addition, an unusual case of nucleotide polymorphism was discovered. Conclusions Although the chloroplast genome of Tortula ruralis differs from that of the only other sequenced moss, Physcomitrella patens, we have yet to determine the biological significance of the differences. The polymorphisms we have uncovered in the sequencing of the genome offer a rare possibility (for mosses) of the generation of DNA markers for fine-level phylogenetic studies, or to investigate individual variation within population

    A Biological Inventory of Meacham Cave (Independence County, Arkansas)

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    During September 2008 through June 2011, we compiled a biological inventory of Meacham Cave in Independence County, AR. Compared to other caves in the region, Meacham Cave houses few vertebrates, but non-aquatic invertebrates were relatively common. A transiently-increased bacterial load in the cave’s only pool of water indicated recent fecal contamination. The combination of vandalism, low vertebrate populations, and high coliform bacterial load reveals that human abuse of the cave has significantly disrupted its ecosystem. Gating the cave in such a way as to allow the movement of bats, salamanders and other animals, while excluding humans, may allow the cave ecosystem to recover. The close proximity of the cave to Lyon College makes it ideal for long-term investigation

    Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest

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    Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts. We predict that this pathogen will accelerate the decline and possibly result in the extirpation of local chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) populations. We present the epidemiology of a cryptic pathogen and show that its presence has important implications for conservation

    Discovery of novel herpes simplexviruses in wild gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees supports zoonotic origin of HSV-2

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    Viruses closely related to human pathogens can reveal the origins of human infectious diseases. Human herpes simplexvirus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are hypothesized to have arisen via host-virus codivergence and cross-species transmission. We report the discovery of novel herpes simplexviruses during a large-scale screening of fecal samples from wild gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, contrary to expectation, simplexviruses from these African apes are all more closely related to HSV-2 than to HSV-1. Molecular clock-based hypothesis testing suggests the divergence between HSV-1 and the African great ape simplexviruses likely represents a codivergence event between humans and gorillas. The simplexviruses infecting African great apes subsequently experienced multiple cross-species transmission events over the past 3 My, the most recent of which occurred between humans and bonobos around 1 Ma. These findings revise our understanding of the origins of human herpes simplexviruses and suggest that HSV-2 is one of the earliest zoonotic pathogens

    Liver Enzyme Abnormalities and Associated Risk Factors in HIV Patients on Efavirenz-Based HAART with or without Tuberculosis Co-Infection in Tanzania.

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    To investigate the timing, incidence, clinical presentation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetic predictors for antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drug induced liver injury (DILI) in HIV patients with or without TB co-infection. A total of 473 treatment naïve HIV patients (253 HIV only and 220 with HIV-TB co-infection) were enrolled prospectively. Plasma efavirenz concentration and CYP2B6*6, CYP3A5*3, *6 and *7, ABCB1 3435C/T and SLCO1B1 genotypes were determined. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline and up to 48 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. DILI case definition was according to Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). Incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The overall incidence of DILI was 7.8% (8.3 per 1000 person-week), being non-significantly higher among patients receiving concomitant anti-TB and HAART (10.0%, 10.7 per 1000 person-week) than those receiving HAART alone (5.9%, 6.3 per 1000 person-week). Frequency of CYP2B6*6 allele (p = 0.03) and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (p = 0.06) was significantly higher in patients with DILI than those without. Multivariate cox regression model indicated that CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype and anti-HCV IgG antibody positive as significant predictors of DILI. Median time to DILI was 2 weeks after HAART initiation and no DILI onset was observed after 12 weeks. No severe DILI was seen and the gain in CD4 was similar in patients with or without DILI. Antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis DILI does occur in our setting, presenting early following HAART initiation. DILI seen is mild, transient and may not require treatment interruption. There is good tolerance to HAART and anti-TB with similar immunological outcomes. Genetic make-up mainly CYP2B6 genotype influences the development of efavirenz based HAART liver injury in Tanzanians

    Synthesis of Oleoylethanolamide Using Lipase

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    An effective process for the enzymatic synthesis of oleoylethanolamide is described in this study. The process included purification of a commercial oleic acid product and then optimization of the reaction between the purified oleic acid and ethanolamine in the presence of hexane and a lipase. Under the optimal amidation reaction conditions identified, oleoylethanolamide was obtained with 96.6% purity. The synthesis was also conducted on a large scale (50 mmol of each of the reactants), and oleoylethanolamide purity and yield after crystallization purification were 96.1 and 73.5%, respectively. Compared to the previous studies, the current method of preparing high-purity oleoylethanolamide is more effective and economically feasible. The scalability and ease for such synthesis make it possible to study the biological and nutritional functions of the cannabinoid-like oleoylethanolamide in animal or human subjects

    Импортозамещение межсекционных уплотнений на примере многоступенчатого насоса "Grundfos"

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    Bronchoconstriction is a characteristic symptom of various chronic obstructive respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) are a suitable ex vivo model to study physiological mechanisms of bronchoconstriction in different species. In the present study, we established an ex vivo model of bronchoconstriction in non-human primates (NHPs). PCLS prepared from common marmosets, cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, and anubis baboons were stimulated with increasing concentrations of representative bronchoconstrictors: methacholine, histamine, serotonin, leukotriene D4 (LTD4), U46619, and endothelin-1. Alterations in the airway caliber were measured and compared to previously published data from rodents, guinea pigs, and humans. Methacholine induced maximal airway constriction, varying between 74 and 88% in all NHP species, whereas serotonin was ineffective. Histamine induced maximal bronchoconstriction of 77 to 90% in rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, and baboons, and a lesser constriction of 53% in marmosets. LTD4 was ineffective in marmosets and rhesus macaques, but induced a maximum constriction of 44 to 49% in cynomolgus macaques and baboons. U46619 and endothelin-1 caused airway constriction in all NHP species, with maximum constrictions of 65 to 91%, and 70 to 81%, respectively. In conclusion, PCLS from NHPs represent a valuable ex vivo model for studying bronchoconstriction. All NHPs respond to mediators relevant to human airway disorders such as methacholine, histamine, U46619, endothelin-1 and are insensitive to the rodent mast cell product serotonin. Only PCLS from cynomolgus macaques and baboons, however, responded also to leukotrienes, suggesting that among all compared species, these two NHPs resemble the human airway mechanisms bes

    Towards a multisensor station for automated biodiversity monitoring

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    Rapid changes of the biosphere observed in recent years are caused by both small and large scale drivers, like shifts in temperature, transformations in land-use, or changes in the energy budget of systems. While the latter processes are easily quantifiable, documentation of the loss of biodiversity and community structure is more difficult. Changes in organismal abundance and diversity are barely documented. Censuses of species are usually fragmentary and inferred by often spatially, temporally and ecologically unsatisfactory simple species lists for individual study sites. Thus, detrimental global processes and their drivers often remain unrevealed. A major impediment to monitoring species diversity is the lack of human taxonomic expertise that is implicitly required for large-scale and fine-grained assessments. Another is the large amount of personnel and associated costs needed to cover large scales, or the inaccessibility of remote but nonetheless affected areas. To overcome these limitations we propose a network of Automated Multisensor stations for Monitoring of species Diversity (AMMODs) to pave the way for a new generation of biodiversity assessment centers. This network combines cutting-edge technologies with biodiversity informatics and expert systems that conserve expert knowledge. Each AMMOD station combines autonomous samplers for insects, pollen and spores, audio recorders for vocalizing animals, sensors for volatile organic compounds emitted by plants (pVOCs) and camera traps for mammals and small invertebrates. AMMODs are largely self-containing and have the ability to pre-process data (e.g. for noise filtering) prior to transmission to receiver stations for storage, integration and analyses. Installation on sites that are difficult to access require a sophisticated and challenging system design with optimum balance between power requirements, bandwidth for data transmission, required service, and operation under all environmental conditions for years. An important prerequisite for automated species identification are databases of DNA barcodes, animal sounds, for pVOCs, and images used as training data for automated species identification. AMMOD stations thus become a key component to advance the field of biodiversity monitoring for research and policy by delivering biodiversity data at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. (C) 2022 Published by Elsevier GmbH on behalf of Gesellschaft fur Okologie