40 research outputs found

    Targeting Teacher Education and Professional Development for Inclusion

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    Teachers around the world are likely to encounter students with varied backgrounds and experiences, strengths and weaknesses in their classrooms. The paper reviews the literature and available data on how teachers can be agents of inclusion in education. It focuses particularly on how teacher education and professional development systems can assist in this task. It then describes the challenges present in the existing design of systems and offers recommendations for ways forward. The article is based on the research conducted for the 2020 Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report (UNESCO, 2020). Hence, it takes a broad view of inclusion in education, not limited to any groups, but rather focused on learning for all learners. The paper emphasises the central role teachers can play in accommodating students of all abilities and backgrounds. It also highlights the importance of relevant internationally comparable data on teacher training, as part of Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4) and particularly its target 4.c. Finally, the paper discusses the challenges and ways forward in supporting and strengthening teachersÔÇÖ role in building inclusion in education

    Issues of cultural diversity, migration, and displacement in teacher education programmes

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    eaching in a context of cultural diversity requires specific competencies to impart common fundamental values, communicate effectively with families and students, take an active stand against all forms of discrimination, and conduct psychosocial interventions. In particular this article aims to identify the main topics that are covered and methods used in the training courses (practical vs theoretical approach). The current work focuses on teacher training programmes in five main categories capturing different aspects of cultural diversity, migration and displacement. Among them are: cross-cultural knowledge, sensitivity and awareness of different cultures, intercultural and professional communication skills, culturally responsive pedagogic approaches and psychosocial interventions. Key examples of teacher training programmes in these categories are discussed and recommendations are proposed in orderto improve the quality of teacher education and ultimately improve the inclusion and academic success of displaced students and those from a migrant background.The following sections examine the role of teachers, particularly in culturally diverse settings. Next, the analysis focuses on each of the five main categories of teacher training for cultural diversity. The paper examines if there is a difference in teachersÔÇÖ training courses on offer in low and high-immigration countries respectively. In order to provide better understanding of the content of the courses the paper then presents a few case studies of programmes offered across different countries

    Aryl-1,3,5-triazine ligands of histamine H4H_{4} receptor attenuate inflammatory and nociceptive response to carrageen, zymosan and lipopolysaccharide

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    Objective and design Histamine H4H_{4} receptor (H4RH_{4}R) offers a great potential for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammation-based diseases. The aim of this study is to present the pharmacological profile of two recently synthesized ligands of H4RH_{4}R with particular reference to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Materials and subjects We used mice and rats in the in vivo tests. We also used murine RAW 264.7 cells and isolated guinea-pig ileum in in vitro test. Treatments In the in vivo tests, animals were pre-treated with the increasing doses of investigated compounds (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and reference compounds: JNJ7777120 (25 mg/kg), indomethacin (10 mg/kg). Macrophages were pre-treated with two concentrations of tested compounds 100 and 10 ╬╝\muM. Methods We examined anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the new H4RH_{4}R antagonists in the in vivo models of inflammation induced by carrageenan or zymosan. We assessed the level of cAMP and release of cytokines, ROS and NO in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, we assessed the affinity of the investigated compounds for histamine H1H_{1} receptor in functional studies. Results Both investigated compounds reduced paw edema, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the carrageenaninduced acute inflammation. Moreover, administration of the investigated compounds resulted in decreased granulocyte influx and attenuated nociceptive reaction in the zymosan-induced peritonitis model. In the same model of inflammation, the investigated compounds reduced vascular permeability; however, this effect was observed only after the highest applied dose. Furthermore, the test compounds had no impact on cell viability in the experiments on RAW 264.7 macrophages. In these cells, stimulated with LPS, the test compounds decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. They increased the cellular concentration of cAMP and attenuated the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF╬▒TNF\alpha and ILÔłĺ1╬▓IL-1\beta. All results were comparable to those obtained for the reference compound JNJ7777120 with the exception of the impact on NO production. Nevertheless, this effect was similar to that obtained for the other reference compound rolipram, which is a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE 4) inhibitor. Further experiments revealed that both of the investigated compounds possessed relatively low affinity for histamine H1_{1} receptor and do not inhibit the activity of the PDE 4B1 enzyme. In addition, all the effects of the investigated compounds in in vivo experiments were observed at doses that did not cause neurologic deficits in rotarod test and did not reduce spontaneous locomotor activity. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the new aryl-1,3,5-triazine derivatives, which are primarily H4RH_{4}R-dependent

    KM-408, a novel phenoxyalkyl derivative as a potential anticonvulsant and analgesic compound for the treatment of neuropathic pain

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    BACKGROUND: Epilepsy frequently coexists with neuropathic pain. Our approach is based on the search for active compounds with multitarget profiles beneficial in terms of potential side effects and on the implementation of screening for potential multidirectional central activity. METHODS: Compounds were synthesized by means of chemical synthesis. After antiseizure and neurotoxicity screening in vivo, KM-408 and its enantiomers were chosen for analgesic activity evaluations. Further safety studies included acute toxicity in mice, the effect on normal electrocardiogram and on blood pressure in rats, whole body plethysmography in rats, and in vitro and biochemical assays. Pharmacokinetics has been studied in rats after iv and po administration. Metabolism has been studied in vivo in rat serum and urine. Radioligand binding studies were performed as part of the mechanism of action investigation. RESULTS: Selected results for KM-408: K(i) sigmaÔÇë=ÔÇë7.2*10(ÔÇô8); K(i) 5-HT(1A)ÔÇë=ÔÇë8.0*10(ÔÇô7); ED(50) MES (mice, ip)ÔÇë=ÔÇë13.3┬ámg/kg; formalin test (I phase, mice, ip)ÔÇöactive at 30┬ámg/kg; SNL (rats, ip)ÔÇöactive at 6┬ámg/kg; STZ-induced pain (mice, ip)ÔÇöactive at 1┬ámg/kg (von Frey) and 10┬ámg/kg (hot plate); hot plate test (mice, ip)ÔÇöactive at 30┬ámg/kg; ED(50) capsaicin test (mice, ip)ÔÇë=ÔÇë18.99┬ámg/kg; tail immersion test (mice)ÔÇöactive at 0.5%; corneal anesthesia (guinea pigs)ÔÇöactive at 0.125%; infiltration anesthesia (guinea pigs)ÔÇöactive at 0.125%. CONCLUSIONS: Within the┬ápresented study a novel compound, R,S-2-((2-(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethyl)amino)butan-1-ol hydrochloride┬á(KM-408) with dual antiseizure and analgesic activity has been developed for potential use in neuropathic pain treatment. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: [Image: see text] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43440-022-00431-7

    Effect of 6 weeks treatment with nebivolol on blood pressure reduction and echocardiographic indices in patients with essential hypertension

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    Wst─Öp Badania, w kt├│rych por├│wnano leki &#946;-adrenolityczne nowych generacji z &#946;-adrenolitykami starszych generacji pod wzgl─Ödem wp┼éywu na wysoko┼Ť─ç ci┼Ťnienia i wybrane parametry hemodynamiczne u chorych z nadci┼Ťnieniem t─Ötniczym pierwotnym, nie dostarczaj─ů jednoznacznych wynik├│w. G┼é├│wnym celem pracy by┼éa ocena skuteczno┼Ťci hipotensyjnej &#946;-adrenolityku nowej generacji &#8212; nebiwololu &#8212; w por├│wnaniu z wp┼éywem wywieranym przez atenolol. Przeanalizowano r├│wnie┼╝ wp┼éyw leczenia nebiwololem na wybrane parametry echokardiograficzne. Oceniano wp┼éyw terapii na tolerancj─Ö wysi┼éku u chorych z nadci┼Ťnieniem t─Ötniczym pierwotnym. Materia┼é i metody Badaniami obj─Öto 76 m─Ö┼╝czyzn z nadci┼Ťnieniem t─Ötniczym pierwotnym ┼éagodnym i umiarkowanym (wg ESH/ESC z 2003 roku: odpowiednio stopie┼ä 1 i 2) w wieku od 22 do 61 lat (┼Ťrednio: 43,6 &#177; 8,2 roku). W warunkach wyj┼Ťciowych oraz po 6 tygodniach leczenia nebiwololem (5 mg raz dziennie) oraz atenololem (50 mg raz dziennie) odpowiednio u 39 i 37 chorych wykonywano nast─Öpuj─ůce badania: ca┼éodobow─ů automatyczn─ů rejestracj─Ö ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego (ABPM), badanie echokardiograficzne (ECHO), EKG ca┼éodobowe metod─ů Holtera (EKG-24 h) oraz elektrokardiograficzny test wysi┼ékowy. Wyniki W grupie leczonej nebiwololem efekt hipotensyjny w zakresie SBP i DBP uzyskano odpowiednio u 87% i 69%. ┼Ürednie warto┼Ťci ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego z ca┼éej doby obni┼╝a┼éy si─Ö odpowiednio o 13 &#177; 8/8 &#177; 8 mm Hg, ┼Ťrednie warto┼Ťci ci┼Ťnienia z dnia o 14 &#177; 9/10 &#177; 7 mm Hg, ┼Ťrednie warto┼Ťci z okresu nocy o 9 &#177; 8/6 &#177; 8 mm Hg (p < 0,01 dla wszystkich r├│┼╝nic). Nie stwierdzono istotnych statystycznie r├│┼╝nic mi─Ödzy grupami. W grupie przyjmuj─ůcej nebiwolol pr─Ödko┼Ť─ç fali E w warunkach wyj┼Ťciowych wynosi┼éa 0,75 &#177; 0,15 m/s i po leczeniu wzros┼éa do 0,81 &#177; 0,2 m/s (p = 0,05), pr─Ödko┼Ť─ç fali A w warunkach wyj┼Ťciowych wynosi┼éa 0,66 &#177; 0,08 m/s, a w momencie zako┼äczenia leczenia 0,64 &#177; 0,1 m/s (NS). Stwierdzono wzrost warto┼Ťci wsp├│┼éczynnika E/A z 1,14 &#177; 0,25 do 1,3 &#177; 0,23 (p < 0,001). Podczas testu wysi┼ékowego &#8212; w momencie zako┼äczenia leczenia w por├│wnaniu z warto┼Ťciami wyj┼Ťciowymi &#8212; warto┼Ťci maksymalnego SBP i DBP zmniejszy┼éy si─Ö o 18 &#177; 26 mm Hg (p < 0,001) i o 3 &#177; 14 mm Hg (NS) pod wp┼éywem leczenia nebiwololem. Wnioski Uzyskane wyniki wskazuj─ů na du┼╝─ů skuteczno┼Ť─ç hipotensyjn─ů nebiwololu u wysokiego odsetka chorych z nadci┼Ťnieniem t─Ötniczym pierwotnym. W przeprowadzonej analizie stwierdzono korzystny kierunek zmian w ocenie wybranych parametr├│w echokardiograficznych. Nie wykazano niekorzystnego wp┼éywu nebiwololu na zdolno┼Ť─ç do wykonywania wysi┼éku fizycznego &#8212; zaobserwowano, ┼╝e omawiany lek wywiera umiarkowanie zaznaczony wp┼éyw na popraw─Ö tolerancji wysi┼éku u chorych z nadci┼Ťnieniem t─Ötniczym pierwotnym.Background The results of clinical studies comparing antihypertensive efficacy of newer and older beta blockers and their effect on echocardiographic indices are inconclusive. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of nebivolol on blood pressure reduction and on selected echocardiographic indices in patients with essential hypertension. The effect of treatment on exercise tolerance was also investigated. Material and methods The study included 76 male patients with mild to moderate (ESH/ESC: grade 1 and 2) essential hypertension (mean age: 43.6 &#177; 8.2 years). In all subjects at baseline and after 6 weeks of nebivolol treatment (5 mg once daily) or atenolol (50 mg once daily) (39 and 37 pts respectively) ABPM, Echo, ECG Holter and exercise test were performed. Results In the nebivolol group SBP and DBP reduction was noticed in 87% and 69% of patients with essential hypertension. Based on ABPM mean SBP and DBP during the whole day, daytime and nighttime decreased: 13 &#177; 8/8 &#177; 8 mm Hg, 14 &#177; 9/10 &#177; 7 mm Hg and 9 &#177; 8/6 &#177; 8 mm Hg respectively (p < 0.01 for all differences). In the nebivolol group E wave was increased between two examinations from 0.75 &#177; 0.15 m/s to 0.81 &#177; 0.2 m/s (p = 0.05), there were no significant changes in A wave 0.66 &#177; 0.08 m/s vs. 0.64 &#177; 0.1 m/s (NS). Ratio E/A was increased during the time of observation from 1.14 &#177; 0.25 to 1.3 &#177; 0.23 (p < 0.001). During the exercise test in the nebivolol group maximal SBP and DBP decreased by 18 &#177; 26 mm Hg (p < 0.001) and 3 &#177; 14 mm Hg (NS) respectively after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusions Our results indicate high antihypertensive efficacy of nebivolol in patients with essential hypertension. We also observed an improvement of selected echocardiographic indices. Nebivolol was not impairing the exercise tolerance in patients with essential hypertension

    Synthesis, computational and experimental pharmacological studies for (thio)ether-triazine 5-HT6R ligands with noticeable action on AChE/BChE and chalcogen-dependent intrinsic activity in search for new class of drugs against Alzheimer's disease

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    Alzheimer's disease is becoming a growing problem increasing at a tremendous rate. Serotonin 5-HT6 receptors appear to be a particularly attractive target from a therapeutic perspective, due to their involvement not only in cognitive processes, but also in depression and psychosis. In this work, we present the synthesis and broad biological characterization of a new series of 18 compounds with a unique 1,3,5-triazine backbone, as potent 5-HT6 receptor ligands. The main aim of this research is to compare the biological activity of the newly synthesized sulfur derivatives with their oxygen analogues and their N-demethylated O- and S-metabolites obtained for the first time. Most of the new triazines displayed high affinity (Ki&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;200&nbsp;nM) and selectivity towards 5-HT6R, with respect to 5-HT2AR, 5-HT7R, and D2R, in the radioligand binding assays. For selected, active compounds crystallographic studies, functional bioassays, and ADME-Tox profile in vitro were performed. The exciting novelty is that the sulfur derivatives exhibit an agonistic mode of action contrary to all other compounds obtained to date in this chemical class herein and previously reported. Advanced computational studies indicated that this intriguing functional shift might be caused by presence of chalcogen bonds formed only by the sulfur atom. In addition, the N-demethylated derivatives have emerged highly potent antioxidants and, moreover, show a significant improvement in metabolic stability compared to the parent structures. The cholinesterase study present micromolar inhibitory AChE and BChE activity for both 5-HT6 agonist 19 and potent antagonist 5. Finally, the behavioral experiments of compound 19 demonstrated its antidepressant-like properties and slight ability to improve cognitive deficits, without inducing memory impairments by itself. Described pharmacological properties of both compounds (5 and 19) allow to give a design clue for the development of multitarget compounds with 5-HT6 (both agonist and antagonist)/AChE and/or BChE mechanism in the group of 1,3,5-triazine derivatives

    Interwencja kryzysowa : konteksty indywidualne i społeczne

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    Praca recenzowana / Peer-reviewed paperOddajemy dzi┼Ť w Twoje r─Öce, Czytelniku, monografi─Ö, kt├│ra w zamy┼Ťle redaktor├│w mia┼éa zosta─ç po┼Ťwi─Öcona interwencji ┼Ťrodowiskowej, tzw. nurtowi ekosystemu. Zamiaru tego nie uda┼éo si─Ö jednak w pe┼éni zrealizowa─ç, z uwagi na stosunkowo niewielkie zainteresowanie polskich badaczy i praktyk├│w teoretycznymi, jak i praktycznymi problemami interwencji kryzysowej spo┼éeczno┼Ťci i na rzecz spo┼éeczno┼Ťci, oraz jej specyfik─ů w polskich warunkach i realiach. Brak zainteresowania wydaje si─Ö po cz─Ö┼Ťci wynika─ç z ma┼éego zaanga┼╝owania polskich s┼éu┼╝b pomocowych w nurty ┼Ťrodowiskowej prewencji i dzia┼éalno┼Ťci pomocowej. Ponad 20 lat rozwoju interwencji kryzysowej w naszym pa┼ästwie zaowocowa┼éo rozbudow─ů instytucjonalnych struktur interwencyjnych, a tak┼╝e przygotowaniem i kszta┼éceniem kadry interwent├│w kryzysowych, podejmuj─ůcych si─Ö pomocy w sytuacjach kryzysowych i traumatycznych, w ramach instytucjonalnych powi─ůzanych z pomoc─ů spo┼éeczn─ů, psychologiczn─ů, rzadziej medyczn─ů. Prezentowane w naszej monografii opracowania autorskie w pewien spos├│b odzwierciedlaj─ů problemy anga┼╝uj─ůce polskich interwent├│w kryzysu zar├│wno w aspekcie teoretycznym, jak praktyki interwencyjnej. Zanim jednak wprowadzimy Czytelnik├│w w problematyk─Ö poszczeg├│lnych opracowa┼ä monografii, chcieliby┼Ťmy pokr├│tce scharakteryzowa─ç stany kryzysowe, b─Öd─ůce przedmiotem interwencyjnych oddzia┼éywa┼ä ze wsp├│┼éczesnej perspektywy ekologiczno-systemowej.Publikacja powsta┼éa w ramach projektu badawczego Krakowskiej Akademii im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego nr WPiNH/DS/3/2015-KO
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