60 research outputs found

    Antibiotic prophylaxis in anterior skull‐base surgery: a survey of the North American Skull Base Society

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/151867/1/alr22396.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/151867/2/alr22396_am.pd

    The management of bronchus intermedius complications after lung transplantation: A retrospective study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Airway complications following lung transplantation remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of bronchial complications in Bronchus Intermedius (BI) is challenging due to the location of right upper bronchus. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of BI Montgomery T-tube stent in a consecutive patients with lung transplantations.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Between January 2007 and December 2010, 132 lung transplantations were performed at Foch Hospital, Suresnes, France. All the patients who had BI Montgomery T-tube after lung transplantation were included in this retrospective study. The demographic and interventional data and also complications were recorded.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Out of 132 lung transplant recipients, 12 patients (9 male and 3 female) were entered into this study. The indications for lung transplantation were: cystic fibrosis 8 (67%), emphysema 3 (25%), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1 (8%). Most of the patients (83%) had bilateral lung transplantation. The mean interval between lung transplantation and interventional bronchoscopy was 11.5 ± 9.8 (SD) months. There was bronchial stenosis at the level of BI in 7 patients (58.3%). The Montgomery T-tube number 10 was used in 9 patients (75%). There was statistically significant difference in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) before and after stent placement (p = 0.01). The most common complication after stent placement was migration (33%).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>BI complications after lung transplantation are still a significant problem. Stenosis or malacia following lung transplantation could be well managed with modified Montgomery T-tube.</p

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator as a bridge to successful surgical repair of bronchopleural fistula following bilateral sequential lung transplantation: a case report and review of literature

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Lung transplantation (LTx) is widely accepted as a therapeutic option for end-stage respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis. However, airway complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients, serious airway complications like bronchopleural fistula (BPF) are rare, and their management is very difficult.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>A 47-year-old man with end-stage respiratory failure due to cystic fibrosis underwent bilateral sequential lung transplantation. Severe post-operative bleeding occurred due to dense intrapleural adhesions of the native lungs. He was re-explored and packed leading to satisfactory haemostasis. He developed a bronchopleural fistula on the 14<sup>th </sup>post-operative day. The fistula was successfully repaired using pericardial and intercostal vascular flaps with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (VV-ECMO) support. Subsequently his recovery was uneventful.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The combination of pedicled intercostal and pericardial flaps provide adequate vascular tissue for sealing a large BPF following LTx. Veno-venous ECMO allows a feasible bridge to recovery.</p

    Predictors of packed red cell transfusion after isolated primary coronary artery bypass grafting – The experience of a single cardiac center: A prospective observational study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Preoperative patients' characteristics can predict the need for perioperative blood component transfusion in cardiac surgical operations. The aim of this prospective observational study is to identify perioperative patient characteristics predicting the need for allogeneic packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion in isolated primary coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations.</p> <p>Patients and Methods</p> <p>105 patients undergoing isolated, first-time CABG were reviewed for their preoperative variables and followed for intraoperative and postoperative data. Patients were 97 males and 8 females, with mean age 58.28 ± 10.97 years. Regression logistic analysis was used for identifying the strongest perioperative predictors of PRBC transfusion.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>PRBC transfusion was used in 71 patients (67.6%); 35 patients (33.3%) needed > 2 units and 14 (13.3%) of these needed > 4 units. Univariate analysis identified female gender, age > 65 years, body weight ≤ 70 Kg, BSA ≤ 1.75 m<sup>2</sup>, BMI ≤ 25, preoperative hemoglobin ≤ 13 gm/dL, preoperative hematocrit ≤ 40%, serum creatinine > 100 μmol/L, Euro SCORE (standard/logistic) > 2, use of CPB, radial artery use, higher number of distal anastomoses, and postoperative chest tube drainage > 1000 mL as significant predictors. The strongest predictors using multivariate analysis were CPB use, hematocrit, body weight, and serum creatinine.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The predictors of PRBC transfusion after primary isolated CABG are use of CPB, hematocrit ≤ 40%, weight ≤ 70 Kg, and serum creatinine > 100 μmol/L. This leads to better utilization of blood bank resources and cost-efficient targeted use of expensive blood conservation modalities.</p

    Ischemia of the lung causes extensive long-term pulmonary injury: an experimental study

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    Background: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) is suggested to be a major risk factor for development of primary acute graft failure (PAGF) following lung transplantation, although other factors have been found to interplay with LIRI. The question whether LIRI exclusively results in PAGF seems difficult to answer, which is partly due to the lack of a long-term experimental LIRI model, in which PAGF changes can be studied. In addition, the long-term effects of LIRI are unclear and a detailed description of the immunological changes over time after LIRI is missing. Therefore our purpose was to establish a long-term experimental model of LIRI, and to study the impact of LIRI on the development of PAGF, using a broad spectrum of LIRI parameters including leukocyte kinetics.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 135) were subjected to 120 minutes of left lung warm ischemia or were sham-operated. A third group served as healthy controls. Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 30 or 90 days after surgery. Blood gas values, lung compliance, surfactant conversion, capillary permeability, and the presence of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in broncho-alveolar-lavage flui

    ICAR: endoscopic skull‐base surgery

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    Looking beyond protected areas: Identifying conservation compatible landscapes in agro-forest mosaics in north-eastern India

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    Small-sized protected areas face increasing pressures from developmental activities and are often rendered inadequate and isolated to conserve wide-ranging species. However, in situations where wildlife persists outside protected areas, conservation goals may be met by aligning the ecological needs of wildlife with the socio-economic needs of local communities and offsetting losses arising due to shared spaces. We explore the potential of a tea-plantation dominated landscape of multiple land-use in north-eastern India to conserve the Asian elephant and the Indian leopard. We assess conservation potential by identifying predictors of species use of particular habitats using species distribution models and identify challenges by reviewing the available literature. Elephants used ~680 km2 of this 1200 km2 non-forested landscape; within this area, habitats with a higher proportion of deciduous forest patches were favored. Leopards were found to be ubiquitous in tea-plantation and used ~950 km2 of the study area, with the proportion of tea cover being the single best predictor of leopard habitat-use. With more than 30 human deaths and 100 injuries per year caused by these two species in the study area alone, the high frequency of human casualties and economic losses remain the prime hurdles to long-term conservation efforts. We discuss specific mitigation measures to reduce human casualties and call for the inclusion of important stakeholders in the mitigation process. The study provides a template for identifying conservation-compatible landscapes outside protected areas and a framework for identifying challenges and potential to mitigate current or future conservation conflicts

    Cholesterol granulomas presenting as sellar masses: a similar, but clinically distinct entity from craniopharyngioma and Rathke\u27s cleft cyst.

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    PURPOSE: Cholesterol granulomas in the sella are rare and can mimic the appearance of craniopharyngioma or Rathke\u27s cleft cysts. Information regarding the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, and clinical course of sellar cholesterol granulomas can help clinicians to differentiate these lesions from other sellar cystic lesions. METHODS: We present three cases of sellar cholesterol granulomas. A literature review was performed for all cases of sellar cholesterol granulomas with individual patient data reported. RESULTS: We identified 24 previously reported cases in addition to our three cases. Mean age was 36.6 years (range 5-68). There were 16 (59%) females. The most common (74%) presenting symptom was endocrinological deficits, typically either isolated diabetes insipidus (DI) or panhypopituitarism. Location was intrasellar in 3 (11%), suprasellar in 6 (22%), and intrasellar/suprasellar in 18 (67%) patients. Lesions were most commonly (83%) T1 hyperintense. Gross total resection was achieved in 16 (64%) and subtotal resection in 9 (36%) patients. Of the seventeen (63%) patients presenting with varying degrees of bitemporal hemianopsia, all had improvement in vision postoperatively. It is worth noting that no cases of preoperative hypopituitarism or DI improved postoperatively. Even though gross total resection was only achieved in 64%, there was only one recurrence reported. CONCLUSION: Sellar cholesterol granulomas are characterized by T1 hyperintensity, younger age, and more frequent and severe endocrinological deficits on presentation. Our review demonstrates high rates of improvement of visual deficits, but poor rates of endocrine function recovery. Recurrence is uncommon even in cases of subtotal resection
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