848 research outputs found

    Intimate Partner Violence in Urban, Rural, and Remote Areas: An Investigation of Offense Severity and Risk Factors

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    This study compared the severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the relationship between risk factors for IPV and overall risk judgements of future IPV in urban, rural and remote areas. IPV risk assessments conducted by the Swedish police between 2010 and 2014 in urban (n = 564), rural (n = 456), and remote (n = 196) areas were examined. Rurality was associated with the severity of IPV reported, as well as the presence of risk factors and their relationship to overall risk judgements. Cases in remote areas included more severe IPV as well as more risk factors

    Neutrino-induced deuteron disintegration experiment

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    Cross sections for the disintegration of the deuteron via neutral-current (NCD) and charged-current (CCD) interactions with reactor antineutrinos are measured to be 6.08 +/- 0.77 x 10^(-45) cm-sq and 9.83 +/- 2.04 x 10^(-45) cm-sq per neutrino, respectively, in excellent agreement with current calculations. Since the experimental NCD value depends upon the CCD value, if we use the theoretical value for the CCD reaction, we obtain the improved value of 5.98 +/- 0.54 x 10^(-45) for the NCD cross section. The neutral-current reaction allows a unique measurement of the isovector-axial vector coupling constant in the hadronic weak interaction (beta). In the standard model, this constant is predicted to be exactly 1, independent of the Weinberg angle. We measure a value of beta^2 = 1.01 +/- 0.16. Using the above improved value for the NCD cross section, beta^2 becomes 0.99 +/- 0.10.Comment: 22pages, 9 figure

    Formation of a ZnS Zn S,O bilayer buffer on CuInS2 thin film solar cell absorbers by chemical bath deposition

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    The application of Zn compounds as buffer layers was recently extended to wide gap CuInS2 CIS based thin film solar cells. Using a new chemical deposition route for the buffer preparation aiming at the deposition of a single layer, nominal ZnS buffer without the need for any toxic reactants such as, e.g. hydrazine, has helped to achieve a similar efficiency as respective CdS buffered reference devices. In order to shed light on the differences of other Zn compound buffers deposited in conventional chemical baths CBD compared to the buffer layers deposited by this alternative CBD process, the composition of the deposited buffers was investigated by x ray excited Auger electron and x ray photoelectron spectroscopy to potentially clarify their superiority in terms of device performance. We have found that in the early stages of this alternative CBD process a thin ZnS layer is formed on the CIS, whereas in the second half of the CBD the growth rate is greatly increased and Zn S,O with a ZnS ZnS ZnO ratio of approx. 80 is deposited. Thus, a ZnS Zn S,O bi layer buffer is deposited on the CIS thin film solar cell absorbers by the alternative chemical deposition route used in this investigation. No major changes of these findings after a postannealing of the buffer CIS sample series and re characterization could be identified

    Initial Results from the CHOOZ Long Baseline Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment

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    Initial results are presented from CHOOZ, a long-baseline reactor-neutrino vacuum-oscillation experiment. Electron antineutrinos were detected by a liquid scintillation calorimeter located at a distance of about 1 km. The detector was constructed in a tunnel protected from cosmic rays by a 300 MWE rock overburden. This massive shielding strongly reduced potentially troublesome backgrounds due to cosmic-ray muons, leading to a background rate of about one event per day, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the observed neutrino signal. From the statistical agreement between detected and expected neutrino event rates, we find (at 90% confidence level) no evidence for neutrino oscillations in the electron antineutrino disappearance mode for the parameter region given approximately by deltam**2 > 0.9 10**(-3) eV**2 for maximum mixing and (sin(2 theta)**2) > 0.18 for large deltam**2.Comment: 13 pages, Latex, submitted to Physics Letters

    Limits on Neutrino Oscillations from the CHOOZ Experiment

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    We present new results based on the entire CHOOZ data sample. We find (at 90% confidence level) no evidence for neutrino oscillations in the anti_nue disappearance mode, for the parameter region given by approximately Delta m**2 > 7 x 10**-4 eV^2 for maximum mixing, and sin**2(2 theta) = 0.10 for large Delta m**2. Lower sensitivity results, based only on the comparison of the positron spectra from the two different-distance nuclear reactors, are also presented; these are independent of the absolute normalization of the anti_nue flux, the cross section, the number of target protons and the detector efficiencies.Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures, Latex fil

    Search for neutrino oscillations on a long base-line at the CHOOZ nuclear power station

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    This final article about the CHOOZ experiment presents a complete description of the electron antineutrino source and detector, the calibration methods and stability checks, the event reconstruction procedures and the Monte Carlo simulation. The data analysis, systematic effects and the methods used to reach our conclusions are fully discussed. Some new remarks are presented on the deduction of the confidence limits and on the correct treatment of systematic errors.Comment: 41 pages, 59 figures, Latex file, accepted for publication by Eur.Phys.J.

    Experimental limits on nucleon decay and ΔB=2 processes

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    Results from the IMB collabration to detect possible proton decay in a salt mine near Cleveland, Ohio are presented. Detection apparatus is described.(AIP)Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/87900/2/1_1.pd

    Intermixing at the heterointerface between ZnS Zn S,O bilayer buffer and CuInS2 thin film solar cell absorber

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    The application of Zn compounds as buffer layers was recently extended to wide gap CuInS2 CIS based thin film solar cells. Using a new chemical deposition route for the buffer preparation aiming at the deposition of a single layer, nominal ZnS buffer without the need for any toxic reactants such as, e.g. hydrazine has helped to achieve a similar efficiency as respective CdS buffered reference devices. After identifying the deposited Zn compound, as ZnS Zn S,O bi layer buffer in former investigations [M. Bär, A. Ennaoui, J. Klaer, T. Kropp, R. S ez Araoz, N. Allsop, I. Lauermann, H. W. Schock, and M.C. Lux Steiner, Formation of a ZnS Zn S,O bilayer buffer on CuInS2 thin film solar cell absorbers by chemical bath deposition , J. Appl. Phys., accepted.], this time the focus lies on potential diffusion intermixing processes at the buffer absorber interface possibly, clarifying the effect of the heat treatment, which drastically enhances the device performance of respective final solar cells. The interface formation was investigated by x ray photoelectron and x ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy. In addition, photoelectron spectroscopy PES measurements were also conducted using tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation in order to gain depth resolved information. The buffer side of the buffer absorber heterointerface were investigated by means of the characterization of Zn S,O ZnS CIS structures where the ZnS Zn S,O bi layer buffer was deposited successively by different deposition times. In order to make the in terms of PES information depth deeply buried absorber side of the buffer absorber heterointerface accessible for characterization, in these cases the buffer layer was etched away by dilute HClaq. We found that while out leached Cu from the absorber layer forms together with the educts in the chemical bath a Zn 1 Z ,Cu2Z S like interlayer between buffer and absorber, Zn is incorporated in the uppermost region of the absorber. Both effects are strongly enhanced by postannealing the Zn S,O ZnS CIS samples. However, it was determined that the major fraction of the Cu and Zn can be found quite close to the heterointerface in the buffer and absorber layer, respectively. Due to this limited in the range of one monolayer spatial extent, these diffusion mechanisms were rather interpreted as a CBD induced and heat treatment promoted Cu Zn ion exchange at the buffer absorber interface. Possible impacts of this intermixing on the performance of the final solar cell devices will also be discusse
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