5,662 research outputs found

    Cesarean Delivery in Women With Genital Herpes in Washington State, 1989–1991

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    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of cesarean deliveries in pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and no active lesions at birth is higher than that in women with no history of genital herpes, and to determine whether this risk was modified by birth facilities' underlying prevalence of cesarean delivery

    A practical high current 11 MeV production of high specific activity 89Zr

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    Introduction Zr-89 is a useful radionuclide for radiolabeling proteins and other molecules.1,2 There are many reports of cyclotron production of 89Zr by the 89Y (p,n) reaction. Most irradiations use thin metal backed deposits of Y and irradiation currents up to 100 µA or thicker amounts of Y or Y2O3 with ~ 20 µA irradiations.3,4 We are working to develop high specific activity 89Zr using a low energy 11 MeV cyclotron. We have found that target Y metal contains carrier Zr and higher specific activities are achieved with less Y. The goal of this work was to optimize yield while minimizing the amount of Y that was irradiated. Material and Methods All irradiations were done using a Siemens Eclipse 11 MeV proton cyclotron. Y foils were used for the experiments described here. Y2O3 was tried and abandoned due to lower yield and poor heat transfer. Yttrium metal foils from Alfa Aesar, ESPI Metals and Sigma Aldrich, 0.1 to 1 mm in thickness, were tested. Each foil was irradiated for 10 to 15 minutes. The targets to hold the Y foils were made of aluminum and were designed to fit within the “paper burn” unit of the Siemen’s Eclipse target station, allowing the Y target body to be easily inserted and removed from the system. Several Al targets of 2 cm diam. and 7.6 cm long were tested with the face of the targets from 11, 26 or 90o relative to the beam to vary watts cm−2 on the foil. The front of the foils was cooled by He convection and the foil backs by conduction to the Al target body. The target body was cooled by conduction to the water cooled Al sleeve of the target holder. Results and Conclusion The best target was two stacked, 0.25 mm thick, foils to stop beam. 92% of the 89Zr activity was in the front 0.25 mm Y foil. With the greatest slant we could irradiate up to 30 µA of beam on tar-get. However, the 13×30 mm dimensions of the foil was more mass (0.41 g) and lower specific activity than was desired. Redesign of the target gave a target 90o to the beam with 12×12 mm foils (0.15 g/foil) that were undamaged with up to 30 µA irradiation when two foils were used. This design has a reduction in beam at the edges of ~10%. With this design, a single Y foil, 0.25 mm thick sustained over 31 µA of beam and a peak power on target of 270 watts cm−2. The product was radionuclidically pure 89Zr after all 89mZr and small amounts of 13N produced from oxygen at the surface had decayed (TABLE 1). Our conclusion is that the optimum target is a single 0.25 mm thick Y foil to obtain the greatest specific activity at this proton energy. This produces 167 MBq of 89Zr at EOB with a 15 minute and 31 µA irradiation. We are continuing to redesign the clamp design to reduce losses at the edge of the beam

    A spatiotemporal complexity architecture of human brain activity

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    Dissipation of potassium and proton gradients inhibits mitochondrial hyperpolarization and cytochrome c release during neural apoptosis.

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    Exposure of rat hippocampal neurons or human D283 medulloblastoma cells to the apoptosis-inducing kinase inhibitor staurosporine induced rapid cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of the executioner caspase-3. Measurements of cellular tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester fluorescence and subsequent simulation of fluorescence changes based on Nernst calculations of fluorescence in the extracellular, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial compartments revealed that the release of cytochrome c was preceded by mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, but not pharmacological blockade of outward potassium currents, inhibited staurosporine-induced hyperpolarization and apoptosis. Dissipation of mitochondrial potassium and proton gradients by valinomycin or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone also potently inhibited staurosporine-induced hyperpolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. This effect was not attributable to changes in cellular ATP levels. Prolonged exposure to valinomycin induced significant matrix swelling, and per se also caused release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In contrast to staurosporine, however, valinomycin-induced cytochrome c release and cell death were not associated with caspase-3 activation and insensitive to Bcl-xL overexpression. Our data suggest two distinct mechanisms for mitochondrial cytochrome c release: (1) active cytochrome c release associated with early mitochondrial hyperpolarization, leading to neuronal apoptosis, and (2) passive cytochrome c release secondary to mitochondrial depolarization and matrix swelling

    Pair production of the T-odd leptons at the LHC

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    The T-odd leptons predicted by the littlest HiggsHiggs model with T-parity can be pair produced via the subprocesses ggH+Hgg\to \ell^{+}_{H}\ell^{-}_{H}, qqˉH+Hq\bar{q}\to \ell^{+}_{H}\ell^{-}_{H}, γγH+H\gamma\gamma\to \ell^{+}_{H}\ell^{-}_{H} and VVH+H VV \to \ell^{+}_{H}\ell^{-}_{H} (VV=WW or ZZ) at the CERNCERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)(LHC). We estimate the hadronic production cross sections for all of these processes and give a simply phenomenology analysis. We find that the cross sections for most of the above processes are very small. However, the value of the cross section for the DrellYanDrell-Yan process qqˉH+Hq\bar{q}\to \ell^{+}_{H}\ell^{-}_{H} can reach 270fb270fb.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figure

    Formation of Ejecta and Dust Pond Deposits on Asteroid Vesta

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    Dust and melt ponds have been studied on planetary bodies including Eros, Itokawa, and the Moon. However, depending on the nature of the regolith material properties and the location of the planetary body, the formation mechanism of the ponded features varies. On Eros and Itokawa, ponded features are formed from dry regolith materials whereas on the Moon similar features are thought to be produced by ejecta melt. On the surface of Vesta, we have identified type 1, ejecta ponds, and type 2, dust ponds. On Vesta type 1 pond are located in the vicinity of ejecta melt of large impact craters. The material is uniformly distributed across the crater floor producing smooth pond surfaces which have a constant slope and shallow depth. The hosting crater of melt-like ponds has a low raised rim and is located on relatively low elevated regions. Whereas, the type 2 ponds on Vesta reveal an undulating surface that is frequently displaced from the crater center or extends toward the crater wall with an abruptly changing slope. We suggested that for the production of the type 2 ponds, localized seismic diffusion and volatile-induced fluidization may be responsible for Vesta. Due to Vesta's large size (in comparison to Eros and Itokawa), the surface may have experienced local-scale rare high-amplitude seismic diffusion which was sufficient to drift fine material. Similarly, short-lived volatile activities were capable to transfer dusty material on to the surface. Segregation and smoothing of transferred material lack further surface activities, hindering the formation of smooth morphology