394 research outputs found

    Challenging the Conceptual Limits in Health Psychology:Using the Concept of Conduct of Life to Study People’s Health Activities from a Social and Subjective Perspective

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    This contribution explores the connection between health and subjectivity. Up until recently a marginally discussed topic in health theories, recent critical research in health psychology introduces notions of subjectivity to theories of health. These notions can be linked to phenomenology, embodied subjectivity, and psychosocial theories that have moved away from a partial, internal understanding of subjectivity. These recent theories tend to define subjectivity as a coherence of concrete, embodied and situated subjectivity that extends capabilities and activities towards a world of social relations. The article at hand shows that embodied and situated subjectivity is a basic function of health that sustains the qualities of human life. To comprehend health as a subjective practice in human lives, we need an understanding of people’s subjective participation in their everyday social lives. Hence, I will argue for the concept of conduct of life as an important concept for health psychology. The concept of conduct of life enables an analysis of how people conduct their activities and of their access to life possibilities, within social settings and societal power systems. The concept can be used to analyse the connection between subjectivity and health in the cultural and social relations by which people actually live

    TMB: Automatic Differentiation and Laplace Approximation

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    TMB is an open source R package that enables quick implementation of complex nonlinear random effect (latent variable) models in a manner similar to the established AD Model Builder package (ADMB, admb-project.org). In addition, it offers easy access to parallel computations. The user defines the joint likelihood for the data and the random effects as a C++ template function, while all the other operations are done in R; e.g., reading in the data. The package evaluates and maximizes the Laplace approximation of the marginal likelihood where the random effects are automatically integrated out. This approximation, and its derivatives, are obtained using automatic differentiation (up to order three) of the joint likelihood. The computations are designed to be fast for problems with many random effects (~10^6) and parameters (~10^3). Computation times using ADMB and TMB are compared on a suite of examples ranging from simple models to large spatial models where the random effects are a Gaussian random field. Speedups ranging from 1.5 to about 100 are obtained with increasing gains for large problems. The package and examples are available at http://tmb-project.org

    Long-term retrospective analysis of mackerel spawning in the North Sea: a new time series and modeling approach to CPR data

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    We present a unique view of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the North Sea based on a new time series of larvae caught by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey from 1948-2005, covering the period both before and after the collapse of the North Sea stock. Hydrographic backtrack modelling suggested that the effect of advection is very limited between spawning and larvae capture in the CPR survey. Using a statistical technique not previously applied to CPR data, we then generated a larval index that accounts for both catchability as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The resulting time series documents the significant decrease of spawning from before 1970 to recent depleted levels. Spatial distributions of the larvae, and thus the spawning area, showed a shift from early to recent decades, suggesting that the central North Sea is no longer as important as the areas further west and south. These results provide a consistent and unique perspective on the dynamics of mackerel in this region and can potentially resolve many of the unresolved questions about this stock.lved questions about this stoc

    Ruotsalaisessa korkeakoulupolitiikassa kuohuu

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    Tuore selvitys Ruotsin korkeakoulupolitiikasta ehdottaa kollegiaalisuuden ja perusrahoituksen lisäämistä sekä tuottavuusindikaattoreista luopumista. Radikaalien ehdotusten takana ei kuitenkaan välttämättä ole silkka tieteen vapauden lisääminen, sillä olematon seurausanalyysi ja ympäripyöreät muotoilut mahdollistavat aloitteiden soveltamisen niin poliitikkojen, virkamiesten kuin yliopistojen johdon vallan kasvattamiseksi
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