1,036 research outputs found

    A method of characteristics solution for the equations governing the unsteady flow of liquids in closed systems

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    Method of characteristics solution for equations governing unsteady flow of liquids in closed system

    Compound nuclear decay and the liquid to vapor phase transition: a physical picture

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    Analyses of multifragmentation in terms of the Fisher droplet model (FDM) and the associated construction of a nuclear phase diagram bring forth the problem of the actual existence of the nuclear vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. We present here a physical picture of fragment production from excited nuclei that solves this problem and establishes the relationship between the FDM and the standard compound nucleus decay rate for rare particles emitted in first-chance decay. The compound thermal emission picture is formally equivalent to a FDM-like equilibrium description and avoids the problem of the vapor while also explaining the observation of Boltzmann-like distribution of emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified and verified in the fragment yields and time scales. Low energy compound nucleus fragment yields scale according to the FDM and lead to an estimate of the infinite symmetric nuclear matter critical temperature between 18 and 27 MeV depending on the choice of the surface energy coefficient of nuclear matter.Comment: Five page two column pages, four figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Local Projections of Low-Momentum Potentials

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    Nuclear interactions evolved via renormalization group methods to lower resolution become increasingly non-local (off-diagonal in coordinate space) as they are softened. This inhibits both the development of intuition about the interactions and their use with some methods for solving the quantum many-body problem. By applying "local projections", a softened interaction can be reduced to a local effective interaction plus a non-local residual interaction. At the two-body level, a local projection after similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolution manifests the elimination of short-range repulsive cores and the flow toward universal low-momentum interactions. The SRG residual interaction is found to be relatively weak at low energy, which motivates a perturbative treatment

    Sensitivity of low energy neutrino experiments to physics beyond the standard model

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    We study the sensitivity of future low energy neutrino experiments to extra neutral gauge bosons, leptoquarks and R-parity breaking interactions. We focus on future proposals to measure coherent neutrino-nuclei scattering and neutrino-electron elastic scattering. We introduce a new comparative analysis between these experiments and show that in different types of new physics it is possible to obtain competitive bounds to those of present and future collider experiments. For the cases of leptoquarks and R-parity breaking interactions we found that the expected sensitivity for most of the future low energy experimental setups is better than the current constraints.Comment: 21 pages, 5 figures. A more detailed analysis of systematic errors is done. Final version to be published in PR

    Effect of statins on atrial fibrillation: collaborative meta-analysis of published and unpublished evidence from randomised controlled trials

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    Objective To examine whether statins can reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. Design Meta-analysis of published and unpublished results from larger scale statin trials, with comparison of the findings against the published results from smaller scale or shorter duration studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, and Cochrane's CENTRAL up to October 2010. Unpublished data from longer term trials were obtained through contact with investigators. Study selection Randomised controlled trials comparing statin with no statin or comparing high dose versus standard dose statin; all longer term trials had at least 100 participants and at least six months' follow-up. Results In published data from 13 short term trials (4414 randomised patients, 659 events), statin treatment seemed to reduce the odds of an episode of atrial fibrillation by 39% (odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.74; P<0.001), but there was significant heterogeneity (P<0.001) between the trials. In contrast, among 22 longer term and mostly larger trials of statin versus control (105 791 randomised patients, 2535 events), statin treatment was not associated with a significant reduction in atrial fibrillation (0.95, 0.88 to 1.03; P=0.24) (P<0.001 for test of difference between the two sets of trials). Seven longer term trials of more intensive versus standard statin regimens (28 964 randomised patients and 1419 events) also showed no evidence of a reduction in the risk of atrial fibrillation (1.00, 0.90 to 1.12; P=0.99). Conclusions The suggested beneficial effect of statins on atrial fibrillation from published shorter term studies is not supported by a comprehensive review of published and unpublished evidence from larger scale trials

    Neutrino-nucleus interaction rates at a low-energy beta-beam facility

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    We compute the neutrino detection rates to be expected at a low-energy beta-beam facility. We consider various nuclei as neutrino detectors and compare the case of a small versus large storage ring.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figure

    Superconducting and Normal State Properties of Neutron Irradiated MgB2

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    We have performed a systematic study of the evolution of the superconducting and normal state properties of neutron irradiated MgB2_2 wire segments as a function of fluence and post exposure annealing temperature and time. All fluences used suppressed the transition temperature, Tc, below 5 K and expanded the unit cell. For each annealing temperature Tc recovers with annealing time and the upper critical field, Hc2(T=0), approximately scales with Tc. By judicious choice of fluence, annealing temperature and time, the Tc of damaged MgB2 can be tuned to virtually any value between 5 and 39 K. For higher annealing temperatures and longer annealing times the recovery of Tc tends to coincide with a decrease in the normal state resistivity and a systematic recovery of the lattice parameters.Comment: Updated version, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Confirmation of Parity Violation in the Gamma Decay of 180Hfm^{180}Hf^{m}

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    This paper reports measurements using the technique of On Line Nuclear Orientation (OLNO) which reexamine the gamma decay of isomeric 180^{\rm 180}Hfm^{\rm m} and specifically the 501 keV 8‚ąí^{\rm -} -- 6+^{\rm +} transition. The irregular admixture of E2 to M2/E3 multipolarity in this transition, deduced from the forward-backward asymmetry of its angular distribution, has for decades stood as the prime evidence for parity mixing in nuclear states. The experiment, based on ion implantation of the newly developed mass-separated 180^{\rm 180}Hfm^{\rm m} beam at ISOLDE, CERN into an iron foil maintained at millikelvin temperatures, produces higher degrees of polarization than were achieved in previous studies of this system. The value found for the E2/M2 mixing ratio, ŌĶ\epsilon = -0.0324(16)(17), is in close agreement with the previous published average value ŌĶ\epsilon = - 0.030(2), in full confirmation of the presence of the irregular E2 admixture in the 501 keV transition. The temperature dependence of the forward-backward asymmetry has been measured over a more extended range of nuclear polarization than previously possible, giving further evidence for parity mixing of the 8‚ąí^{\rm -} and 8+^{\rm +} levels and the deduced E2/M2 mixing ratio.Comment: 28 pages, 9 figures, accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Macroscopic superpositions via nested interferometry: finite temperature and decoherence considerations

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    Recently there has been much interest in optomechanical devices for the production of macroscopic quantum states. Here we focus on a proposed scheme for achieving macroscopic superpositions via nested interferometry. We consider the effects of finite temperature on the superposition produced. We also investigate in detail the scheme's feasibility for probing various novel decoherence mechanisms.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figure

    Intermediate energy Coulomb excitation as a probe of nuclear structure at radioactive beam facilities

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    The effects of retardation in the Coulomb excitation of radioactive nuclei in intermediate energy collisions (Elab ~100 MeV/nucleon) are investigated. We show that the excitation cross sections of low-lying states in 11Be, {38,40,42}S and {44,46}Ar projectiles incident on gold and lead targets are modified by as much as 20% due to these effects. The angular distributions of decaying gamma-rays are also appreciably modified.Comment: 21 pages, 3 figures, Phys. Rev. C, in pres
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