317 research outputs found


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    This paper combines a model of open access fisheries exploitation with a distance-based approach to missing labor and product markets. The model generates predictions about the circumstances under which exploitation increases or decreases with distance. An econometric model is estimated with survey data from artisanal fishing households in Minahasa, Indonesia. The results can be used to assess the impacts of improved transportation infrastructure on fishery exploitation.Marketing,


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    This study examines the factors the influence the values and importance that landowners place on the attributes of voluntary wetland restoration programs. Choice-based conjoint analysis, a stated preference method, was used to estimate the marginal utilities and values for restoration program attributes for North Carolina landowners. Landowner preferences were estimated at individual and aggregate levels to examine the importance of modeling heterogeneous preferences. Choice modeling performed at both aggregate and individual levels demonstrated the information gains from a disaggregated approach.Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,


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    The random nature of soil loss under alternative land-use practices should be an important consideration of soil conservation planning and analysis under risk. Chance constrained programming models can provide information on the trade-offs among pre-determined tolerance levels of soil loss, probability levels of satisfying the tolerance levels, and economic profits or losses resulting from soil conservation to soil conservation policy makers. When using chance constrained programming models, the distribution of factors being constrained must be evaluated. If random variables follow a log-normal distribution, the normality assumption, which is generally used in the chance constrained programming models, can bias the results.Risk and Uncertainty,

    Migration and Fishing in Indonesian Coastal Villages

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    Using Decision Analysis to Improve Malaria Control Policy Making

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    Malaria and other vector-borne diseases represent a significant and growing burden in many tropical countries. Successfully addressing these threats will require policies that expand access to and use of existing control methods, such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and artemesinin combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria, while weighing the costs and benefits of alternative approaches over time. This paper argues that decision analysis provides a valuable framework for formulating such policies and combating the emergence and re-emergence of malaria and other diseases. We outline five challenges that policy makers and practitioners face in the struggle against malaria, and demonstrate how decision analysis can help to address and overcome these challenges. A prototype decision analysis framework for malaria control in Tanzania is presented, highlighting the key components that a decision support tool should include. Developing and applying such a framework can promote stronger and more effective linkages between research and policy, ultimately helping to reduce the burden of malaria and other vector-borne diseases

    Towards Malaria Elimination and its Implication for Vector Control, Disease Management and Livelihoods in Tanzania

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    Over the years, malaria has remained the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. Population based studies have indicated a decline in overall malaria prevalence among under-fives from 18.1% in 2008 to 9.7% in 2012. The decline of malaria infection has occurred in all geographical zones of the country. Malaria mortality and cumulative probability of deaths have also shown a marked decline from 2000 to 2010. During the same period, area specific studies in Muheza, Korogwe, Muleba and Mvomero have also reported a similar declining trend in malaria prevalence and incidence. The decline in malaria prevalence has been observed to coincide with a decline in transmission indices including anopheline mosquito densities. The decline in malaria prevalence has been attributed to a combination of factors including improved access to effective malaria treatment with artemisinin combination therapy and protection from mosquito bites by increased availability of insecticide treated bednets and indoor residual spraying. The objective of this paper was to review the changing landscape of malaria and its implication for disease management, vector control, and livelihoods in Tanzania. It seeks to examine the links within a broad framework that considers the different pathways given the multiplicity of interactions that can produce unexpected outcomes and trade-offs. Despite the remarkable decline in malaria burden, Tanzania is faced with a number of challenges. These include the development of resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroids, changing mosquito behaviour and livelihood activities that increase mosquito productivity and exposure to mosquito bites. In addition, there are challenges related to health systems, community perceptions, community involvement and sustainability of funding to the national malaria control programme. This review indicates that malaria remains an important and challenging disease that illustrates the interactions among ecosystems, livelihoods, and health systems. Livelihoods and several sectoral development activities including construction, water resource development and agricultural practices contribute significantly to malaria mosquito productivity and transmission. Consequently, these situations require innovative and integrative re-thinking of the strategies to prevent and control malaria. In conclusion, to accelerate and sustain malaria control in Tanzania, the prevention strategies must go hand in hand with an intersectoral participation approach that takes into account ecosystems and livelihoods that have the potential to increase or decrease malaria transmission.\u

    Integrated vector management for malaria control in Uganda : knowledge, perceptions and policy development

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    BACKGROUND: Integrated vector management (IVM) is increasingly being recommended as an option for sustainable malaria control. However, many malaria-endemic countries lack a policy framework to guide and promote the approach. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge and perceptions in relation to current malaria vector control policy and IVM in Uganda, and to make recommendations for consideration during future development of a specific IVM policy. METHODS: The study used a structured questionnaire to interview 34 individuals working at technical or policymaking levels in health, environment, agriculture and fisheries sectors. Specific questions on IVM focused on the following key elements of the approach: integration of chemical and non-chemical interventions of vector control; evidence-based decision making; inter-sectoral collaboration; capacity building; legislation; advocacy and community mobilization. RESULTS: All participants were familiar with the term IVM and knew various conventional malaria vector control (MVC) methods. Only 75% thought that Uganda had a MVC policy. Eighty percent (80%) felt there was intersectoral collaboration towards IVM, but that it was poor due to financial constraints, difficulties in involving all possible sectors and political differences. The health, environment and agricultural sectors were cited as key areas requiring cooperation in order for IVM to succeed. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of participants responded that communities were actively being involved in MVC, while 48% felt that the use of research results for evidencebased decision making was inadequate or poor. A majority of the participants felt that malaria research in Uganda was rarely used to facilitate policy changes. Suggestions by participants for formulation of specific and effective IVM policy included: revising the MVC policy and IVM-related policies in other sectors into a single, unified IVM policy and, using legislation to enforce IVM in development projects. CONCLUSION: Integrated management of malaria vectors in Uganda remains an underdeveloped component of malaria control policy. Cooperation between the health and other sectors needs strengthening and funding for MVC increased in order to develop and effectively implement an appropriate IVM policy. Continuous engagement of communities by government as well as monitoring and evaluation of vector control programmes will be crucial for sustaining IVM in the country.The study was an activity of the Malaria Decision Analysis Support Tool (MDAST) Project funded by GEF/UNEP/WHO-AFRO, Project No. GEFSEC ID 3346.http://www.malariajournal.com/content/11/1/2

    Valuing ecosystem services from wetlands restoration in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

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    This study assesses the value of restoring forested wetlands via the U.S. government's Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley by quantifying and monetizing ecosystem services. The three focal services are greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, nitrogen mitigation, and waterfowl recreation. Site-and region-level measurements of these ecosystem services are combined with process models to quantify their production on agricultural land, which serves as the baseline, and on restored wetlands. We adjust and transform these measures into per-hectare, valuation-ready units and monetize them with prices from emerging ecosystem markets and the environmental economics literature. By valuing three of the many ecosystem services produced, we generate lower bound estimates for the total ecosystem value of the wetlands restoration. Social welfare value is found to be between 1435and1435 and 1486/ha/year, with GHG mitigation valued in the range of 171to171 to 222, nitrogen mitigation at 1248,andwaterfowlrecreationat1248, and waterfowl recreation at 16. Limited to existing markets, the estimate for annual market value is merely 70/ha,butwhenfullyaccountingforpotentialmarkets,thisestimaterisesto70/ha, but when fully accounting for potential markets, this estimate rises to 1035/ha. The estimated social value surpasses the public expenditure or social cost of wetlands restoration in only 1 year, indicating that the return on public investment is very attractive for the WRP. Moreover, the potential market value is substantially greater than landowner opportunity costs, showing that payments to private landowners to restore wetlands could also be profitable for individual landowners

    Factors influencing malaria control policy-making in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania

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    Abstract Background Policy decisions for malaria control are often difficult to make as decision-makers have to carefully consider an array of options and respond to the needs of a large number of stakeholders. This study assessed the factors and specific objectives that influence malaria control policy decisions, as a crucial first step towards developing an inclusive malaria decision analysis support tool (MDAST). Methods Country-specific stakeholder engagement activities using structured questionnaires were carried out in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The survey respondents were drawn from a non-random purposeful sample of stakeholders, targeting individuals in ministries and non-governmental organizations whose policy decisions and actions are likely to have an impact on the status of malaria. Summary statistics across the three countries are presented in aggregate. Results Important findings aggregated across countries included a belief that donor preferences and agendas were exerting too much influence on malaria policies in the countries. Respondents on average also thought that some relevant objectives such as engaging members of parliament by the agency responsible for malaria control in a particular country were not being given enough consideration in malaria decision-making. Factors found to influence decisions regarding specific malaria control strategies included donor agendas, costs, effectiveness of interventions, health and environmental impacts, compliance and/acceptance, financial sustainability, and vector resistance to insecticides. Conclusion Malaria control decision-makers in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania take into account health and environmental impacts as well as cost implications of different intervention strategies. Further engagement of government legislators and other policy makers is needed in order to increase funding from domestic sources, reduce donor dependence, sustain interventions and consolidate current gains in malaria.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/109455/1/12936_2014_Article_3344.pd

    Vanishing Scalar Invariant Spacetimes in Higher Dimensions

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    We study manifolds with Lorentzian signature and prove that all scalar curvature invariants of all orders vanish in a higher-dimensional Lorentzian spacetime if and only if there exists an aligned non-expanding, non-twisting, geodesic null direction along which the Riemann tensor has negative boost order.Comment: final versio