34,237 research outputs found

### Nanometer lithography on silicon and hydrogenated amorphous silicon with low-energy electrons

We report the local oxidation of hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) surfaces induced with the scanning-tunneling microscope (STM) operating in air and by a beam of free low-energy electrons. With STM, oxide lines were written in Si(100) and Si(110) and transferred into the substrate by wet etching. In case of Si(110) trenches with a width as small as 35 nm and a depth of 300 nm were made. The same process has also successfully been applied to the patterning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films. We demonstrate the fabrication of metallic â€˜nanowiresâ€™ using a-Si:H as resist layer. With regard to the process of oxidation, it is found that the oxide written with STM is apparently not proportional to the electron current, in contrast to results obtained with a beam of free electrons in an oxygen gas-environment. The dose needed to remove the hydrogen was determined as a function of electron energy. This dose is minimal for 100 eV electrons amounting to 4 mC/cm2

### EXTENSION-2000 A.D.- COMMENTS

Views future changes in Extension and lists suggestions for Extension marketing workers to improve their position.Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,

### Solving the Poisson equation on small aspect ratio domains using unstructured meshes

We discuss the ill conditioning of the matrix for the discretised Poisson
equation in the small aspect ratio limit, and motivate this problem in the
context of nonhydrostatic ocean modelling. Efficient iterative solvers for the
Poisson equation in small aspect ratio domains are crucial for the successful
development of nonhydrostatic ocean models on unstructured meshes. We introduce
a new multigrid preconditioner for the Poisson problem which can be used with
finite element discretisations on general unstructured meshes; this
preconditioner is motivated by the fact that the Poisson problem has a
condition number which is independent of aspect ratio when Dirichlet boundary
conditions are imposed on the top surface of the domain. This leads to the
first level in an algebraic multigrid solver (which can be extended by further
conventional algebraic multigrid stages), and an additive smoother. We
illustrate the method with numerical tests on unstructured meshes, which show
that the preconditioner makes a dramatic improvement on a more standard
multigrid preconditioner approach, and also show that the additive smoother
produces better results than standard SOR smoothing. This new solver method
makes it feasible to run nonhydrostatic unstructured mesh ocean models in small
aspect ratio domains.Comment: submitted to Ocean Modellin

### Wave packet approach to transport in mesoscopic systems

Wave packets provide a well established and versatile tool for studying
time-dependent effects in molecular physics. Here, we demonstrate the
application of wave packets to mesoscopic nanodevices at low temperatures. The
electronic transport in the devices is expressed in terms of scattering and
transmission coefficients, which are efficiently obtained by solving an initial
value problem (IVP) using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The
formulation as an IVP makes non-trivial device topologies accessible and by
tuning the wave packet parameters one can extract the scattering properties for
a large range of energies.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figure

### PACS and SPIRE photometer maps of Mâ€‰33: First results of the HERschelâ€‰Mâ€‰33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES)

Context. Within the framework of the HERM33ES key program, we are studying the star forming interstellar medium in the nearby, metal-poor spiral galaxy Mâ€‰33, exploiting the high resolution and sensitivity of Herschel.
Aims. We use PACS and SPIRE maps at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 Î¼m wavelength, to study the variation of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with galacto-centric distance.
Methods. Detailed SED modeling is performed using azimuthally averaged fluxes in elliptical rings of 2 kpc width, out to 8 kpc galacto-centric distance. Simple isothermal and two-component grey body models, with fixed dust emissivity index, are fitted to the SEDs between 24 Î¼m and 500 Î¼m using also MIPS/Spitzerâ€‰ data, to derive first estimates of the dust physical conditions.
Results. The far-infrared and submillimeter maps reveal the branched, knotted spiral structure of Mâ€‰33. An underlying diffuse disk is seen in all SPIRE maps (250â€“500 Î¼m). Two component fits to the SEDs agree better than isothermal models with the observed, total and radially averaged flux densities. The two component model, with Î² fixed at 1.5, best fits the global and the radial SEDs. The cold dust component clearly dominates; the relative mass of the warm component is less than 0.3% for all the fits. The temperature of the warm component is not well constrained and is found to be about 60 K Â± 10 K. The temperature of the cold component drops significantly from ~24 K in the inner 2 kpc radius to 13 K beyond 6 kpc radial distance, for the best fitting model. The gas-to-dust ratio for Î² = 1.5, averaged over the galaxy, is higher than the solar value by a factor of 1.5 and is roughly in agreement with the subsolar metallicity of Mâ€‰33

### Tungsten-rhenium alloy thermocouples effective for high-temperature measurement

Tungsten-rhenium alloy thermocouples, specifically, insulated, sheathed W/W plus 26Re and W plus 5 Re/W plus 26 Re thermocouples, are effective for temperature measurement in excess of 2920 degrees C. These thermocouples have a high thermoelectric output and excellent relationship to temperatures up to 2760 degrees C

### A correction to the enhanced bottom drag parameterisation of tidal turbines

Hydrodynamic modelling is an important tool for the development of tidal
stream energy projects. Many hydrodynamic models incorporate the effect of
tidal turbines through an enhanced bottom drag. In this paper we show that
although for coarse grid resolutions (kilometre scale) the resulting force
exerted on the flow agrees well with the theoretical value, the force starts
decreasing with decreasing grid sizes when these become smaller than the length
scale of the wake recovery. This is because the assumption that the upstream
velocity can be approximated by the local model velocity, is no longer valid.
Using linear momentum actuator disc theory however, we derive a relationship
between these two velocities and formulate a correction to the enhanced bottom
drag formulation that consistently applies a force that remains closed to the
theoretical value, for all grid sizes down to the turbine scale. In addition, a
better understanding of the relation between the model, upstream, and actual
turbine velocity, as predicted by actuator disc theory, leads to an improved
estimate of the usefully extractable energy. We show how the corrections can be
applied (demonstrated here for the models MIKE 21 and Fluidity) by a simple
modification of the drag coefficient

### The von Karman equations, the stress function, and elastic ridges in high dimensions

The elastic energy functional of a thin elastic rod or sheet is generalized
to the case of an M-dimensional manifold in N-dimensional space. We derive
potentials for the stress field and curvatures and find the generalized von
Karman equations for a manifold in elastic equilibrium. We perform a scaling
analysis of an M-1 dimensional ridge in an M = N-1 dimensional manifold. A
ridge of linear size X in a manifold with thickness h << X has a width w ~
h^{1/3}X^{2/3} and a total energy E ~ h^{M} (X/h)^{M-5/3}. We also prove that
the total bending energy of the ridge is exactly five times the total
stretching energy. These results match those of A. Lobkovsky [Phys. Rev. E 53,
3750 (1996)] for the case of a bent plate in three dimensions.Comment: corrected references, 27 pages, RevTeX + epsf, 2 figures, Submitted
to J. Math. Phy

- â€¦