11 research outputs found

    Prospects of 5G Satellite Networks Development

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    In the future, 5G networks will represent the global telecommunication infrastructure of the digital economy, which should cover the whole world including inaccessible areas not covered by 5G terrestrial networks. Given this, the satellite segment of 5G networks becomes one of the pressing issues of development and standardization at the second stage of 5G networks development in the period 2020–2025. The requirements for 5G satellite network will be determined primarily by combination of key services supported by 5G networks, which are combined by three basic business models of 5G terrestrial networks: enhanced Mobile Broadband Access (eMBB), Massive Internet of Things connections (mIoT), and Ultra-reliable low-latency communication (uRLLC). 3GPP as leading international standards body has identified several use cases and scenarios of 5G satellite networks development. 5G satellite networks are understood to mean networks in which the NG-RAN radio access network is constructed using a satellite network technology. The chapter has discussed the spectral and technological aspects of 5G satellite network developments, issues of architecture and role of delays on quality of services of 5G satellite segment, and possibility of constructing a 5G satellite segment based on distributed and centralized gNB base stations. The issues of satellite payload utilization have considered for bent-pipe and on-board processing technologies in 5G satellite segment

    A law of the iterated logarithm for stochastic approximation procedures in d-dimensional Euclidean space

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    AbstractIn this paper, we investigate the rate of convergence for general d-dimensional stochastic approximation procedures and present an explicit expression for the asymptotic bounds in the law of the iterated logarithm

    Вплив світлодіодного випромінювання різних довжин хвиль на інтенсивність росту Staphylococcus Aureus

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    There are presented the results of the study of led radiation of red-infra-red and blue-infra-red diapasons of Medolight Red and Medolight Blu Doc devices on the growth of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, and collection test-strain Staphylococcus aureus АТСС 25923.Aim of research – to determine the effect of led radiation on the intensity of Staphylococcus aureus growth on solid nutritive mediums.Materials and methods. For the research there were taken daily agar cultures of microorganisms, led to the turbid standard 0,5 by McFarland. The obtained inoculum was dissolved in 1,6x105 and inoculated again on Petri dishes with further radiation. Separate series determined the influence of led radiation of different wave length, expositions and frequencies. The results were estimated by the calculation of the number of bacterial colonies, grown on Petri dishes, and compared with the control- non-radiated cultures. Results. As a result of experimental studies it was established, that led radiation essentially influences the microorganism growth. The effect of this influence depended on radiation parameters. At short-term expositions we observed the stimulation of bacteria growth, whereas their increase stimulated the bactericidal effect. Rather important influence was inherent to the frequency of the light flow – radiation with the frequency 8000 Hz most essentially decreased the number of bacterial colonies, comparing with the control.Conclusions. Led radiation has the photo-modifying effect on studied Staphylococcus aureus strains. This effect was manifested in the bacteria growth stimulation at expositions for 5-10 minutes or bactericidal effect at radiation during 20-25 minutes. At optimal parameters of radiation (exposition 25minutes, frequency 8000 Hz)the number of bacterial colonies decreased by  26-34,5 %, comparing with the controlНаведені результати досліджень впливу світлодіодного випромінювання червоно-інфрачервоного та синьо-інфрачервоного діапазонів на ріст клінічних ізолятів Staphylococcus aureus та колекційного тест-штаму Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Встановлено, що ефект впливу випромінювання залежить від його довжини хвилі, експозиції та частоти. Розроблено методичні рекомендації використання світлодіодного випромінювання у комплексній терапії гнійно-запальних процесів стафілококової етіологі

    Interfacility Helicopter Ambulance Transport of Neurosurgical Patients: Observations, Utilization, and Outcomes from a Quaternary Level Care Hospital

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    The clinical benefit of helicopter transport over ground transportation for interfacility transport is unproven. We sought to determine actual practice patterns, utilization, and outcomes of patients undergoing interfacility transport for neurosurgical conditions.We retrospectively examined all interfacility helicopter transfers to a single trauma center during 2008. We restricted our analysis to those transfers leading either to admission to the neurosurgical service or to formal consultation upon arrival. Major exclusion criteria included transport from the scene, death during transport, and transport to any area of the hospital other than the emergency department. The primary outcome was time interval to invasive intervention. Secondary outcomes were estimated ground transportation times from the referring hospital, admitting disposition, and discharge disposition. Of 526 candidate interfacility helicopter transfers to our emergency department in 2008, we identified 167 meeting study criteria. Seventy-five (45%) of these patients underwent neurosurgical intervention. The median time to neurosurgical intervention ranged from 1.0 to 117.8 hours, varying depending on the diagnosis. For 101 (60%) of the patients, estimated driving time from the referring institution was less than one hour. Four patients (2%) expired in the emergency department, and 34 patients (20%) were admitted to a non-ICU setting. Six patients were discharged home within 24 hours. For those admitted, in-hospital mortality was 28%.Many patients undergoing interfacility transfer for neurosurgical evaluation are inappropriately triaged to helicopter transport, as evidenced by actual times to intervention at the accepting institution and estimated ground transportation times from the referring institution. In a time when there is growing interest in health care cost containment, practitioners must exercise discretion in the selection of patients for air ambulance transport--particularly when it may not bear influence on clinical outcome. Neurosurgical evaluation via telemedicine may be one strategy for improving air transport triage

    A law of the iterated logarithm for stochastic approximation procedures in d-dimensional Euclidean space

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    In this paper, we investigate the rate of convergence for general d-dimensional stochastic approximation procedures and present an explicit expression for the asymptotic bounds in the law of the iterated logarithm.Stochastic approximation Law of the iterated logarithm Rate of convergence

    Limit Theorems for Solutions of Stochastic Difference Equations in Banach Spaces with Applications

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    Exact rates of convergence which are of the law of the iterated logarithm type are investigated for recursive stochastic difference equations in Banach spaces. The results are applied to autoregressive processes and to an averaging method. 1. Introduction Let IB be a real separable Banach-space, let jj \Delta jj be the corresponding norm and L(IB) the space of bounded linear operators on IB. We concider the recursive stochastic equation X n = A n X n\Gamma1 +D n V n ; n 1; (1.1) where X 0 and V n are IB valued random variables and A n and D n are random operators in L(IB). We assume that the condition lim n!1 jjA n \Gamma Ajj = 0 almost surely (a. s.) (1.2) is satisfied for some A 2 L(IB) and that the spectral radius r of A is smaller than 1, i. e. lim n!1 jjA n jj 1=n = r ! 1: (1.3) We want to present conditions under which lim sup n!1 c n fl fl fl X n i=1 X i fl fl fl = ff a. s. (1.4) is satisfied for some nonincreasing sequence (c n ) of real numbers, c n ! 0, and so..

    Influence of Led Radiation of Various Wave Length on Growth Intensity of Staphylococcus Aureus

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    There are presented the results of the study of led radiation of red-infra-red and blue-infra-red diapasons of Medolight Red and Medolight Blu Doc devices on the growth of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, and collection test-strain Staphylococcus aureus АТСС 25923.Aim of research – to determine the effect of led radiation on the intensity of Staphylococcus aureus growth on solid nutritive mediums.Materials and methods. For the research there were taken daily agar cultures of microorganisms, led to the turbid standard 0,5 by McFarland. The obtained inoculum was dissolved in 1,6x105 and inoculated again on Petri dishes with further radiation. Separate series determined the influence of led radiation of different wave length, expositions and frequencies. The results were estimated by the calculation of the number of bacterial colonies, grown on Petri dishes, and compared with the control- non-radiated cultures. Results. As a result of experimental studies it was established, that led radiation essentially influences the microorganism growth. The effect of this influence depended on radiation parameters. At short-term expositions we observed the stimulation of bacteria growth, whereas their increase stimulated the bactericidal effect. Rather important influence was inherent to the frequency of the light flow – radiation with the frequency 8000 Hz most essentially decreased the number of bacterial colonies, comparing with the control.Conclusions. Led radiation has the photo-modifying effect on studied Staphylococcus aureus strains. This effect was manifested in the bacteria growth stimulation at expositions for 5-10 minutes or bactericidal effect at radiation during 20-25 minutes. At optimal parameters of radiation (exposition 25minutes, frequency 8000 Hz)the number of bacterial colonies decreased by 26-34,5 %, comparing with the contro
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