13 research outputs found

    Localization and instability in sheared granular materials: role of friction and vibration

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    Shear banding and stick-slip instabilities have been long observed in sheared granular materials. Yet, their microscopic underpinnings, interdependencies and variability under different loading conditions have not been fully explored. Here, we use a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model, the Shear Transformation Zone theory, to investigate the dynamics of strain localization and its connection to stability of sliding in sheared, dry, granular materials. We consider frictional and frictionless grains as well as presence and absence of acoustic vibrations. Our results suggest that at low and intermediate strain rates, persistent shear bands develop only in the absence of vibrations. Vibrations tend to fluidize the granular network and de-localize slip at these rates. Stick-slip is only observed for frictional grains and it is confined to the shear band. At high strain rates, stick-slip disappears and the different systems exhibit similar stress-slip response. Changing the vibration intensity, duration or time of application alters the system response and may cause long-lasting rheological changes. We analyse these observations in terms of possible transitions between rate strengthening and rate weakening response facilitated by a competition between shear induced dilation and vibration induced compaction. We discuss the implications of our results on dynamic triggering, quiescence and strength evolution in gouge filled fault zones

    Joint Cryo-ET Alignment and Reconstruction with Neural Deformation Fields

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    We propose a framework to jointly determine the deformation parameters and reconstruct the unknown volume in electron cryotomography (CryoET). CryoET aims to reconstruct three-dimensional biological samples from two-dimensional projections. A major challenge is that we can only acquire projections for a limited range of tilts, and that each projection undergoes an unknown deformation during acquisition. Not accounting for these deformations results in poor reconstruction. The existing CryoET software packages attempt to align the projections, often in a workflow which uses manual feedback. Our proposed method sidesteps this inconvenience by automatically computing a set of undeformed projections while simultaneously reconstructing the unknown volume. We achieve this by learning a continuous representation of the undeformed measurements and deformation parameters. We show that our approach enables the recovery of high-frequency details that are destroyed without accounting for deformations

    Differentiable Uncalibrated Imaging

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    We propose a differentiable imaging framework to address uncertainty in measurement coordinates such as sensor locations and projection angles. We formulate the problem as measurement interpolation at unknown nodes supervised through the forward operator. To solve it we apply implicit neural networks, also known as neural fields, which are naturally differentiable with respect to the input coordinates. We also develop differentiable spline interpolators which perform as well as neural networks, require less time to optimize and have well-understood properties. Differentiability is key as it allows us to jointly fit a measurement representation, optimize over the uncertain measurement coordinates, and perform image reconstruction which in turn ensures consistent calibration. We apply our approach to 2D and 3D computed tomography and show that it produces improved reconstructions compared to baselines that do not account for the lack of calibration. The flexibility of the proposed framework makes it easy to apply to almost arbitrary imaging problems

    Trumpets: Injective Flows for Inference and Inverse Problems

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    We propose injective generative models called Trumpets that generalize invertible normalizing flows. The proposed generators progressively increase dimension from a low-dimensional latent space. We demonstrate that Trumpets can be trained orders of magnitudes faster than standard flows while yielding samples of comparable or better quality. They retain many of the advantages of the standard flows such as training based on maximum likelihood and a fast, exact inverse of the generator. Since Trumpets are injective and have fast inverses, they can be effectively used for downstream Bayesian inference. To wit, we use Trumpet priors for maximum a posteriori estimation in the context of image reconstruction from compressive measurements, outperforming competitive baselines in terms of reconstruction quality and speed. We then propose an efficient method for posterior characterization and uncertainty quantification with Trumpets by taking advantage of the low-dimensional latent space.Comment: 16 page

    Globally Injective ReLU Networks

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    Publisher Copyright: © 2022 Michael Puthawala, Konik Kothari, Matti Lassas, Ivan Dokmanic, Maarten de Hoop.Injectivity plays an important role in generative models where it enables inference; in inverse problems and compressed sensing with generative priors it is a precursor to well posedness. We establish sharp characterizations of injectivity of fully-connected and convolutional ReLU layers and networks. First, through a layerwise analysis, we show that an expansivity factor of two is necessary and sufficient for injectivity by constructing appropriate weight matrices. We show that global injectivity with iid Gaussian matrices, a commonly used tractable model, requires larger expansivity between 3.4 and 10.5. We also characterize the stability of inverting an injective network via worst-case Lipschitz constants of the inverse. We then use arguments from differential topology to study injectivity of deep networks and prove that any Lipschitz map can be approximated by an injective ReLU network. Finally, using an argument based on random projections, we show that an end-to-end-rather than layerwise-doubling of the dimension suffices for injectivity. Our results establish a theoretical basis for the study of nonlinear inverse and inference problems using neural networks.Peer reviewe

    Conditional Injective Flows for Bayesian Imaging

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    Most deep learning models for computational imaging regress a single reconstructed image. In practice, however, ill-posedness, nonlinearity, model mismatch, and noise often conspire to make such point estimates misleading or insufficient. The Bayesian approach models images and (noisy) measurements as jointly distributed random vectors and aims to approximate the posterior distribution of unknowns. Recent variational inference methods based on conditional normalizing flows are a promising alternative to traditional MCMC methods, but they come with drawbacks: excessive memory and compute demands for moderate to high resolution images and underwhelming performance on hard nonlinear problems. In this work, we propose C-Trumpets -- conditional injective flows specifically designed for imaging problems, which greatly diminish these challenges. Injectivity reduces memory footprint and training time while low-dimensional latent space together with architectural innovations like fixed-volume-change layers and skip-connection revnet layers, C-Trumpets outperform regular conditional flow models on a variety of imaging and image restoration tasks, including limited-view CT and nonlinear inverse scattering, with a lower compute and memory budget. C-Trumpets enable fast approximation of point estimates like MMSE or MAP as well as physically-meaningful uncertainty quantification.Comment: 23 pages, 23 figure

    Learning the geometry of wave-based imaging

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    We propose a general physics-based deep learning architecture for wave-based imaging problems. A key difficulty in imaging problems with a varying background wave speed is that the medium “bends” the waves differently depending on their position and direction. This space-bending geometry makes the equivariance to translations of convolutional networks an undesired inductive bias. We build an interpretable neural architecture inspired by Fourier integral operators (FIOs) which approximate the wave physics. FIOs model a wide range of imaging modalities, from seismology and radar to Doppler and ultrasound. We focus on learning the geometry of wave propagation captured by FIOs, which is implicit in the data, via a loss based on optimal transport. The proposed FIONet performs significantly better than the usual baselines on a number of imaging inverse problems, especially in out-of-distribution tests