2,341 research outputs found

    Large-Scale Structures Behind the Southern Milky Way from Observations of Partially Obscured Galaxies

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    We report here on extragalactic large-scale structures uncovered by a deep optical survey for galaxies behind the southern Milky Way. Systematic visual inspection of the ESO/SRC-survey revealed over 10000 previously unknown galaxies in the region 265 < l < 340, |b| < 10. With subsequently obtained redshifts of more than 10% of these galaxies, new structures across the Milky Way are unveiled, such as a filament at ~ 2500 km/s connecting to the Hydra and Antlia clusters, a shallow extended supercluster in Vela (~ 6000km/s), and a nearby (4882 km/s), very massive (M ~ 2-5 10^15 Msun), rich Coma-like cluster which seems to constitute the previously unidentified center of the Great Attractor. The innermost part of the Milky Way where the foreground obscuration in the blue is 5mag, respectively HI-column densities greater than 6 10^21 / cm^2 remains fully opaque. In this approximately 8 degrees wide strip, the forthcoming blind HI-survey with the multi-beam system at Parkes will provide the only tool to unveil this part of the extragalactic sky.Comment: Presented at the Multibeam Workshop on ``HI in the Local Universe'', Sydney, May 13-15 1996. Accepted 2.11.1996 for publication by PASA. Latex-file with 4 encapsulated postscript files. Version with original figures available at http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~lstavele/13beam/proceedings/korteweg/korteweg.htm

    The SED of the nearby HI-massive LIRG HIZOA J0836-43: from the NIR to the radio domain

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    HIZOA J0836-43is one of the most HI-massive galaxies in the local (z<0.1) Universe. Not only are such galaxies extremely rare, but this "coelacanth" galaxy exhibits characteristics -- in particular its active, inside-out stellar disk-building -- that appear more typical of past (z ~ 1) star formation, when large gas fractions were more common. Unlike most local giant HI galaxies, it is actively star forming. Moreover, the strong infrared emission is not induced by a merger event or AGN, as is commonly found in other local LIRGs. The galaxy is suggestive of a scaled-up version of local spiral galaxies; its extended star formation activity likely being fueled by its large gas reservoir and, as such, can aid our understanding of star formation in systems expected to dominate at higher redshifts. The multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic observations that have led to these deductions will be presented. These include NIR (J H K) and MIR (Spitzer; 3-24micron) imaging and photometry, MIR spectroscopy, ATCA HI-interferometry and Mopra CO line emission observations. But no optical data, as the galaxy is heavily obscured due to its location in Vela behind the Milky Way.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, to appear in the proceedings of IAU Symposium 284, "The Spectral Energy Distribution of Galaxies" (SED2011), 5-9 September 2011, Preston, UK, editors R.J. Tuffs & C.C.Popesc

    An Overview of Uncovered and Suspected Large-Scale Structures behind the Milky Way

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    Various dynamically important extragalactic large-scale structures in the local Universe lie behind the Milky Way. Most of these structures (predicted and unexpected) have only recently been made ``visible'' through dedicated deep surveys at various wavelengths. The wide range of observational searches (optical, near infrared, far infrared, radio and X-ray) for galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) will be reviewed and the uncovered and suspected large-scale structures summarised. Particular emphasis is given to the Great Attractor region where the existence of yet another cluster is suspected (Woudt 1998). Predictions from reconstructions of the density field in the ZOA are discussed and compared with observational evidence. Although no major structures are predicted out to about v < 10000 km/s for which no observational evidence exists, the comparison between reconstructed density fields and the observed galaxy distribution remain important as they allow derivations of the density and biasing parameters.Comment: To appear in PASA 16. Proceedings of workshop "HI in the Local Universe, II", held in Melbourne, Sept. 1998. 9 pages, LaTeX2e, 1 encapsulated PS figur

    DENIS Observations of Multibeam Galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance

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    Roughly 25% of the optical extragalactic sky is obscured by the dust and stars of our Milky Way. Dynamically important structures might still lie hidden in this zone. Various surveys are presently being employed to uncover the galaxy distribution in the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) but all suffer from (different) limitations and selection effects. We illustrate the promise of using a multi-wavelength approach for extragalactic large-scale studies behind the ZOA, i.e. a combination of three surveys -- optical, systematic blind HI and near-infrared (NIR), which will allow the mapping of the peculiar velocity field in the ZOA through the NIR Tully-Fisher relation. In particular, we present here the results of cross-identifying HI-detected galaxies with the DENIS NIR survey, and the use of NIR colours to determine foreground extinctions.Comment: Accepted for publication in PASA. Proceedings of workshop "HI in the Local Universe, II", held in Melbourne, Sept. 1998. 9 pages, LaTeX2e, 2 encapsulated PS figures, 3 JPEG figures, Full resolution figures 2, 3 and 4 and full resolution paper are at ftp://ftp.iap.fr/pub/from_users/gam/PAPERS/HICONF

    A Catalog of Galaxies behind the Southern Milky Way. - I. The Hydra/Antlia Extension (l: 266 - 296 deg)

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    A deep optical galaxy search in the southern Milky Way - aimed at reducing the width of the Zone of Avoidance - revealed 3279 galaxy candidates above the diameter limit of D > 0.2 arcmin, of which only 112 (3.4%) were previously catalogued. The surveyed region (266 < l < 296 and -10 < b < +8) lies in the extension of the Hydra and Antlia clusters - where a supercluster is suspected - and in the approximate direction of the dipole anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Here we present the optical properties of the unveiled galaxies such as positions, diameters, magnitudes, morphological types, including a detailed discussion on the quality of these data and the completeness limits as a function of the foreground dust extinction. For 127 of the 227 positional matches in the IRAS PSC, a reliable cross-identification could be found. Several distinct overdensities and filaments of galaxies can be identified that are apparently uncorrelated with the Galactic foreground extinction hence the probable signature of extragalactic large-scale structures. This catalog constitutes the first part in a series of five equally conducted optical searches for galaxies in the southern Milky Way (245 < l < 350). With these surveys, the entire Zone of Avoidance will have been covered by means of visual inspection. The catalogs build the basis for various spectroscopic and photometric follow-up programs which eventually will allow a thorough analyse of the galaxy distribution in redshift space and the peculiar velocity fields within the Zone of Avoidance, as well an an improved understanding of the Galactic foreground extinction.Comment: Accepted for publication by A&ASS, 50 pages, LaTex, 7 encapsulated figures, requires aa.cls end epsf.sty. Full-resolution, color figures 1, 2, 6 and 7 are available upon request (E-mail: [email protected]

    Cosmological Structures behind the Milky Way

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    This paper provides an update to the review on extragalactic large-scale structures uncovered in the Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) by Kraan-Korteweg & Lahav 2000, in particular in the Great Attractor region. Emphasis is given to the penetration of the ZOA with the in 2003 released NIR 2MASX Catalog. The distribution is little affected by the foreground dust. Galaxies can be identified to extinction levels of over A(B) < 10m except in the wider Galactic Bulge region (see Fig. 9) where star density is a strong delimiting factor. The shape of the NIR-ZOA is quite asymmetric due to Galactic features such as spiral arms and the Bulge, something that should not be ignored when using NIR samples for studies such as dipole determinations. Results are presented from the deep blind HI ZOA survey performed with the Multibeam Receiver at the Parkes telescope (v < 12700km/s). The distribution of the roughly one thousand discovered spiral galaxies in the optically and NIR impenetratable part of the ZOA clearly depict the prominence of the Norma Supercluster. With the optically identified galaxies in the ZOA, a picture emerges that bears a striking resemblance to the Coma cluster in the Great Wall: the rich Norma cluster (ACO 3627) lies within a great-wall like structure that can be traced at the redshift range of the cluster over 90dg on the sky, with two foreground filaments - reminiscent of the legs in the famous stick man - that merge in an overdensity at slightly lower redshifts around the radio galaxy PKS 1343-601 (see Figs. 14 & 16). (abridged)Comment: Invited Review at the joint conference of the Czech Astron. Society and the Astron. Gesellschaft. To appear in Reviews in Modern Astronomy 18, on ``From Cosmological Structures to the Milky Way'', ed. S. Roeser, 30pages, 16 ps-figures. Full resolution gzipped ps-version (16Mb) available at http://mensa.ast.uct.ac.za/~kraan/AGreview/AGreview.ps.g

    Extragalactic Large-Scale Structures behind the Southern Milky Way. IV. Redshifts Obtained with MEFOS

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    Abbreviated: As part of our efforts to unveil extragalactic large-scale structures behind the southern Milky Way, we here present redshifts for 764 galaxies in the Hydra/Antlia, Crux and Great Attractor region (266deg < l < 338deg, |b| < 10deg), obtained with the Meudon-ESO Fibre Object Spectrograph (MEFOS) at the 3.6-m telescope of ESO. The observations are part of a redshift survey of partially obscured galaxies recorded in the course of a deep optical galaxy search behind the southern Milky Way. A total of 947 galaxies have been observed, a small percentage of the spectra (N=109, 11.5%) were contaminated by foreground stars, and 74 galaxies (7.8%) were too faint to allow a reliable redshift determination. With MEFOS we obtained spectra down to the faintest galaxies of our optical galaxy survey, and hence probe large-scale structures out to larger distances (v <~ 30000 km/s) than our other redshift follow-ups. The most distinct large-scale structures revealed in the southern Zone of Avoidance are discussed in context to known structures adjacent to the Milky Way.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures; accepted for publication in A&A. Tables 1 and 2 will be available in electronic format at the CDS. Figure 1 at full resolution, and both tables are available at http://mensa.ast.uct.ac.za/~pwoudt/data/H4462/

    A catalogue of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way. - II. The Crux and Great Attractor regions (l = 289deg - 338deg)

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    In this second paper of the catalogue series of galaxies behind the southern Milky Way, we report on the deep optical galaxy search in the Crux region (289deg <= l <= 318deg and -10deg <= b <= 10deg) and the Great Attractor region (316deg <= l <= 338deg and -10deg <= b <= 10deg). The galaxy catalogues are presented, a brief description of the galaxy search given, as well as a discussion on the distribution and characteristics of the uncovered galaxies. A total of 8182 galaxies with major diameters D >= 0.2 arcmin were identified in this ~850 square degree area: 3759 galaxies in the Crux region and 4423 galaxies in the Great Attractor region. Of the 8182 galaxies, 229 (2.8%) were catalogued before in the optical (3 in radio) and 251 galaxies have a reliable (159), or likely (92) cross-identification in the IRAS Point Source Catalogue (3.1%). A number of prominent overdensities and filaments of galaxies are identified. They are not correlated with the Galactic foreground extinction and hence indicative of extragalactic large-scale structures. Redshifts obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) for 518 of the newly catalogued galaxies in the Crux and Great Attractor regions (Fairall et al. 1998; Woudt et al. 1999) confirm distinct voids and clusters in the area here surveyed. With this optical galaxy search, we have reduced the width of the optical `Zone of Avoidance' for galaxies with extinction-corrected diameters larger than 1.3 arcmin from extinction levels A_B >= 1.0 mag to A_B >= 3.0 mag: the remaining optical Zone of Avoidance is now limited by |b| <= 3deg (see Fig. 16).Comment: 19 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in A&A. Tables will shortly be available in electronic version at the CDS. Full resolution (colour) copies of Figures 1, 2, 3 and 16 are available at http://mensa.ast.uct.ac.za/~pwoud

    Does it pay to invest in art? A selection-corrected returns perspective : [draft october 15, 2013]

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    This paper shows the importance of correcting for sample selection when investing in illiquid assets with endogenous trading. Using a large sample of 20,538 paintings that were sold repeatedly at auction between 1972 and 2010, we find that paintings with higher price appreciation are more likely to trade. This strongly biases estimates of returns. The selection-corrected average annual index return is 6.5 percent, down from 10 percent for traditional uncorrected repeat sales regressions, and Sharpe Ratios drop from 0.24 to 0.04. From a pure financial perspective, passive index investing in paintings is not a viable investment strategy once selection bias is accounted for. Our results have important implications for other illiquid asset classes that trade endogenously
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