762 research outputs found

    Gate-capacitance extraction from RF C-V measurements

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    In this work, a full two-port analysis of an RF C-V measurement set-up is given. This two-port analysis gives insight on the limitations of the commonly used gate capacitance extraction, based on the Y/sub 11/ parameter of the device. It is shown that the parasitics of the device can disturb the extracted gate capacitance and a new extraction scheme, based on the Z-matrix, is introduced that eliminates the effect of these parasitics. Measurement results prove the validity of this new extraction scheme, under different conditions

    On the Connection of Anisotropic Conductivity to Tip Induced Space Charge Layers in Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of p-doped GaAs

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    The electronic properties of shallow acceptors in p-doped GaAs{110} are investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperature. Shallow acceptors are known to exhibit distinct triangular contrasts in STM images for certain bias voltages. Spatially resolved I(V)-spectroscopy is performed to identify their energetic origin and behavior. A crucial parameter - the STM tip's work function - is determined experimentally. The voltage dependent potential configuration and band bending situation is derived. Ways to validate the calculations with the experiment are discussed. Differential conductivity maps reveal that the triangular contrasts are only observed with a depletion layer present under the STM tip. The tunnel process leading to the anisotropic contrasts calls for electrons to tunnel through vacuum gap and a finite region in the semiconductor.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figure

    Exploring instruments for results-oriented citizenship education

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    Sexual selection for both diversity and repetition in birdsong

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    From fiddler crabs to humans, animals perform repetitive displays showing neuromotor skill and vigour. Consistent repetition of identical notes (vocal consistency) facilitates the assessment of neuromotor skills and is important in communication in birds. Most birdsong research has focused on song diversity as a signal of individual quality, which seems contradictory as repetition is extremely common in most species. Here we show that consistent repetition within songs is positively correlated with reproductive success in male blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). A playback experiment shows that females are sexually aroused by male songs with high levels of vocal consistency, which also peaks seasonally during the fertile period of the female, supporting the role of vocal consistency in mate choice. Male vocal consistency also increases with subsequent repetitions of the same song type (a warm-up effect) which conflicts with the fact that females habituate to repeated song, showing decreased arousal. Importantly, we find that switching song types elicits significant dishabituation within the playback, supporting the habituation hypothesis as an evolutionary mechanism driving song diversity in birds. An optimal balance between repetition and diversity may explain the singing style of many bird species and displays of other animals

    A limit to sustained performance constrains trill length in birdsong

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    In birds, song performance determines the outcome of contests over crucial resources. We hypothesized that 1) sustained performance is limited within song, resulting in a performance decline towards the end and 2) the impact of song length is compromised if performance declines. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed the songs of 597 bird species (26 families) and conducted a playback experiment on blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Our multi-species analysis showed that song performance declines after sustained singing, supporting our hypothesis. If the performance decline is determined by individual attributes (i.e., physical condition), our results explain how trill length can honestly signal quality. Our experiment showed that longer trills of high performance elicited a stronger response during territorial interactions. However, long trills that declined in performance elicited a weaker response than short, high-performance trills. A trade-off between the duration and performance quality of a motor display can be an important aspect in communication across taxa

    Sound properties affect measurement of vocal consistency in birdsong: validation of the spectrogram cross correlation method (SPCC)

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    In songbirds, singing with precision (vocal consistency) has been proposed to reflect whole-organism performance. Vocal consistency is measured using spectrogram cross correlation (SPCC) to assess the acoustic similarity between subsequent renditions of the same note. To quantify how SPCC is sensitive to the acoustic discrepancies found in birdsong, we created a set of 40 000 synthetic sounds that were designed based on the songs of 345 species. This set included 10 000 reference sounds and 30 000 inexact variants with quantified differences in frequency, bandwidth, or duration with respect to the reference sounds. We found that SPCC is sensitive to acoustic discrepancies within the natural range of vocal consistency, supporting the use of this method as a tool to assess vocal consistency in songbirds. Importantly, the sensitivity of SPCC was significantly affected by the bandwidth of sounds. The predictions derived from the analysis of synthetic sounds were then validated using 954 song recordings from 345 species (20 families). Based on psychoacoustic studies from birds and humans, we propose that the sensitivity of SPCC to acoustic discrepancies mirrors a perceptual bias in sound discrimination. Nevertheless, we suggest the tool be used with care, since sound bandwidth varies considerably between singing styles and therefore, SPCC scores may not be comparable

    Leafcutter ants adjust foraging behaviours when exposed to noise disturbance

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    We investigate the impact of anthropogenic noise on the foraging efficiency of leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex octospinosus) in a controlled laboratory experiment. Anthropogenic noise is a widespread, pervasive and increasing environmental pollutant and its negative impacts on animal fitness and behaviour have been well documented. Much of this evidence has come from studies concerning vertebrate species with very little evidence for terrestrial invertebrates, especially social living invertebrates. We compare movement speed, forage fragment size, and colony activity levels of ants exposed to intermittent elevated noise and in ambient noise conditions. We use intermittent and temporally unpredictable bursts of white noise produced from a vibration speaker to create the elevated noise profile. Ant movement speed increased under elevated noise conditions when travelling to collect forage material and when returning to the colony nest. The size of individually measured foraged material was significantly reduced under elevated noise conditions. Colony activity, the number of ants moving along the forage route, was not affected by elevated noise and was consistent throughout the foraging events. Increased foraging speed and smaller forage fragments suggests that the ants had to make more foraging trips over an extended period, which is likely to affect energy expenditure and increases exposure to predators. This is likely to have significant fitness impacts for the colony over time

    Record RF performance of standard 90 nm CMOS technology

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    We have optimized 3 key RF devices realized in standard logic 90 nm CMOS technology and report a record performance in terms of n-MOS maximum oscillation frequency f/sub max/ (280 GHz), varactor tuning range and varactor and inductor quality factor

    Predictive Value of EGFR-PI3K-AKT-mTOR-Pathway Inhibitor Biomarkers for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma:A Systematic Review

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    BACKGROUND: Understanding molecular pathogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) has considerably improved in the last decades. As a result, novel therapeutic strategies have evolved, amongst which are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies. With the exception of cetuximab, targeted therapies for HNSCC have not yet been introduced into clinical practice. One important aspect of new treatment regimes in clinical practice is presence of robust biomarkers predictive for therapy response.METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library. Articles were included if they investigated a biomarker for targeted therapy in the EGFR-PI3K-AKT-mTOR-pathway.RESULTS: Of 83 included articles, 52 were preclinical and 33 were clinical studies (two studies contained both a preclinical and a clinical part). We classified EGFR pathway inhibitor types and investigated the type of biomarker (biomarker on epigenetic, DNA, mRNA or protein level).CONCLUSION: Several EGFR-PI3K-AKT-mTOR-pathway inhibitor biomarkers have been researched for HNSCC but few of the investigated biomarkers have been adequately confirmed in clinical trials. A more systematic approach is needed to discover proper biomarkers as stratifying patients is essential to prevent unnecessary costs and side effects.</p
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