705 research outputs found

    Broadband Spectrum Survey Measurements for Cognitive Radio Applications

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    It is well known that the existing spectrum licensing system results in a gross under-utilization of the frequency spectrum. Spectrum background measurements – spectrum surveys – provide useful data for spectrum regulation, planning or finding frequency niches for spectrum sharing. Dynamic spectrum sharing as a main goal of cognitive radio (CR) is the modern option on how to optimize usage of the frequency spectrum. A spectrum survey measurement system is introduced with results obtained from a variety of markedly different scenarios allowing us, unlike other studies, to focus on wideband and fast spectrum scans. The sensitivity of the receiver is no worse than -113 dBm in the whole band. The utilization of the frequency spectrum is analyzed to prove its under-utilization and to show spectrum sharing opportunities. This was shown to be true in the frequency band higher than 2.5 GHz. A comparison with other spectrum survey campaigns is provided

    Wideband Measurement in a Small Shielded Box Using Equiangular Spiral Antennas

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    Small shielded boxes are nowadays widely used for measurement of EMS, EMI and sensitivity properties of different devices. This paper deals with an improvement of commercial small shielded box parameters for a measurement of sensitivity of small mobile devices in 650 MHz to 4 GHz frequency band. Optimization of shielded box parameters is obtained by an inner area modification. Suitable wideband equiangular spiral antenna was designed for this measurement. Parameters of antenna inside the box, such as gain, impedance, directivity etc. are discussed in the paper. Effects of antenna positions in the box for a transmission are shown and the best configuration of antennas placing for the transmission in the shielded box is chosen

    Right ventricular dysfunction in patients with Brugada-like electrocardiography: a two dimensional strain imaging study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Sodium channel blockers augment ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads in patients undergoing Brugada-type electrocardiography (ECG). However, their effect on echocardiographic features is not known. We address this by assessing global and regional ventricular function using conventional Doppler and two- dimensional (2D) speckle tracking techniques.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Thirty-one patients with Brugada-type ECG were studied. A pure sodium channel blocker, pilsicainide, was used to provoke an ECG response. The percentage longitudinal systolic myocardial strain at the base of both the right ventricular (RV) free wall and the interventricular septum wall was measured using 2D speckle tracking. Left ventricular (LV) and RV myocardial performance (TEI) indices were also measured.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The pilsicainide challenge provoked a positive ECG response in 13 patients (inducible group). In the inducible group, longitudinal strain was significantly reduced only at the RV (-27.3 ± 5.4% vs -22.1 ± 3.6%, <it>P </it>< 0.01), and both RV and LV TEI indices increased (RV: 0.19 ± 0.09 vs 0.27 ± 0.11, <it>P </it>< 0.05; LV: 0.30 ± 0.10 vs 0.45 ± 0.10, <it>P </it>< 0.01) after pilsicainide administration.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Temporal and spatial analysis using the TEI index and 2D strain imaging revealed the deterioration of global ventricular function associated with conduction disturbance and RV regional function in patients with Brugada-type ECG and coved type ST elevation due to administration of a sodium channel blocker.</p

    Cyberinfrastructure Deployments on Public Research Clouds Enable Accessible Environmental Data Science Education

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    Modern science depends on computers, but not all scientists have access to the scale of computation they need. A digital divide separates scientists who accelerate their science using large cyberinfrastructure from those who do not, or who do not have access to the compute resources or learning opportunities to develop the skills needed. The exclusionary nature of the digital divide threatens equity and the future of innovation by leaving people out of the scientific process while over-amplifying the voices of a small group who have resources. However, there are potential solutions: recent advancements in public research cyberinfrastructure and resources developed during the open science revolution are providing tools that can help bridge this divide. These tools can enable access to fast and powerful computation with modest internet connections and personal computers. Here we contribute another resource for narrowing the digital divide: scalable virtual machines running on public cloud infrastructure. We describe the tools, infrastructure, and methods that enabled successful deployment of a reproducible and scalable cyberinfrastructure architecture for a collaborative data synthesis working group in February 2023. This platform enabled 45 scientists with varying data and compute skills to leverage 40,000 hours of compute time over a 4-day workshop. Our approach provides an open framework that can be replicated for educational and collaborative data synthesis experiences in any data- and compute-intensive discipline

    The microRNA-29 family in cartilage homeostasis and osteoarthritis

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    MicroRNAs have been shown to function in cartilage development and homeostasis, as well as in progression of osteoarthritis. The objective of the current study was to identify microRNAs involved in the onset or early progression of osteoarthritis and characterise their function in chondrocytes. MicroRNA expression in mouse knee joints post-DMM surgery was measured over 7 days. Expression of miR-29b-3p was increased at day 1 and regulated in the opposite direction to its potential targets. In a mouse model of cartilage injury and in end-stage human OA cartilage, the miR-29 family were also regulated. SOX9 repressed expression of miR-29a-3p and miR-29b-3p via the 29a/b1 promoter. TGFβ1 decreased expression of miR-29a, b and c (3p) in primary chondrocytes, whilst IL-1β increased (but LPS decreased) their expression. The miR-29 family negatively regulated Smad, NFκB and canonical WNT signalling pathways. Expression profiles revealed regulation of new WNT-related genes. Amongst these, FZD3, FZD5, DVL3, FRAT2, CK2A2 were validated as direct targets of the miR-29 family. These data identify the miR-29 family as microRNAs acting across development and progression of OA. They are regulated by factors which are important in OA and impact on relevant signalling pathways

    Pathogenic Potential of Hic1-Expressing Cardiac Stromal Progenitors

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    The cardiac stroma contains multipotent mesenchymal progenitors. However, lineage relationships within cardiac stromal cells are poorly defined. Here, we identified heart-resident PDGFRa(+) SCA-1(+) cells as cardiac fibro/adipogenic progenitors (cFAPs) and show that they respond to ischemic damage by generating fibrogenic cells. Pharmacological blockade of this differentiation step with an anti-fibrotic tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreases post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) remodeling and leads to improvement in cardiac function. In the undamaged heart, activation of cFAPs through lineage-specific deletion of the gene encoding the quiescence-associated factor HIC1 reveals additional pathogenic potential, causing fibrofatty infiltration within the myocardium and driving major pathological features pathognomonic in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC). In this regard, cFAPs contribute to multiple pathogenic cell types within cardiac tissue and therapeutic strategies aimed at modifying their activity are expected to have tremendous benefit for the treatment of diverse cardiac diseases

    Non-uniform recovery of left ventricular transmural mechanics in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>After a transient ischemic episode, the subendocardial region is more severely injured than outer subepicardial layers and may regain a proportionately greater degree of mechanical function in the longitudinal direction. We sought to explore left ventricular (LV) transmural mechanics in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) for determining the mechanism underlying recovery of global LV function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A total of 42 patients (62 ± 11 years old, 71% male) with a first STEMI underwent serial assessments of LV longitudinal, circumferential and radial strains (LS, CS and RS) by selective tracking of subendocardial and subepicardial regions within 48 hours and a median of 5 months after PCI. LV mechanical parameters were compared with sixteen age and gender matched normal controls.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In comparison with controls, endocardial and epicardial LS were markedly attenuated at 48 hours following PCI (P < 0.001). An improvement in LV ejection fraction (EF > 5%) following PCI was seen in 24 (57%) patients and was associated with improvement in endocardial and epicardial LS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively) and endocardial CS (P = 0.01). Radial strain and wall motion score index, however, remained persistently abnormal. The change in endocardial LS (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.42, P = 0.01) and the change in epicardial LS (OR 1.2, 95% 1.03 to 1.46, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with the improvement in LVEF, independent of the location of STEMI and the presence of underlying multivessel disease.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>In patients with STEMI treated by PCI, the recovery of LV subendocardial shortening strain seen in the longitudinal direction underlies the improvement in LV global function despite persistent abnormalities in radial mechanics and wall motion score index.</p
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