345 research outputs found

    Designing Data Governance Structure: An Organizational Perspective

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    High quality data is a key source of business value,but data quality issues in organizations are often addressedinadequately and pertinent Data Governance (DG) is called for.This paper focuses on the accountability aspect of datagovernance: the assignment of decision rights and responsibilitiespertaining to data management. We follow the design scienceapproach and examine how Agile Governance Model (AGM) canbe used as the basis of designing a pertinent governance structurefor the organizational arrangement of data governanceaccountabilities. We distinguish common data management rolesbased on the literature, analyze the organizational coverage ofthese data governance roles, and demonstrate how AGM can beused to ensure that requisite accountabilities will be addressedthroughout the enterprise at the right organizational levels andaspectual loci

    The effect of interruption to propofol sedation on auditory event-related potentials and electroencephalogram in intensive care patients

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    INTRODUCTION: In this observational pilot study we evaluated the electroencephalogram (EEG) and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after discontinuation of propofol sedation in neurologically intact intensive care patients. METHODS: Nineteen intensive care unit patients received a propofol infusion in accordance with a sedation protocol. The EEG signal and the ERPs were measured at the frontal region (Fz) and central region (Cz), both during propofol sedation and after cessation of infusion when the sedative effects had subsided. The EEG signal was subjected to power spectral estimation, and the total root mean squared power and spectral edge frequency 95% were computed. For ERPs, we used an oddball paradigm to obtain the N100 and the mismatch negativity components. RESULTS: Despite considerable individual variability, the root mean squared power at Cz and Fz (P = 0.004 and P = 0.005, respectively) and the amplitude of the N100 component in response to the standard stimulus at Fz (P = 0.022) increased significantly after interruption to sedation. The amplitude of the N100 component (at Cz and Fz) was the only parameter that differed between sedation levels during propofol sedation (deep versus moderate versus light sedation: P = 0.016 and P = 0.008 for Cz and Fz, respectively). None of the computed parameters correlated with duration of propofol infusion. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that use of ERPs, especially the N100 potential, may help to differentiate between levels of sedation. Thus, they may represent a useful complement to clinical sedation scales in the monitoring of sedation status over time in a heterogeneous group of neurologically intact intensive care patients

    An activity recognition framework deploying the random forest classifier and a single optical heart rate monitoring and triaxial accelerometer wrist-band

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    Wrist-worn sensors have better compliance for activity monitoring compared to hip, waist, ankle or chest positions. However, wrist-worn activity monitoring is challenging due to the wide degree of freedom for the hand movements, as well as similarity of hand movements in different activities such as varying intensities of cycling. To strengthen the ability of wrist-worn sensors in detecting human activities more accurately, motion signals can be complemented by physiological signals such as optical heart rate (HR) based on photoplethysmography. In this paper, an activity monitoring framework using an optical HR sensor and a triaxial wrist-worn accelerometer is presented. We investigated a range of daily life activities including sitting, standing, household activities and stationary cycling with two intensities. A random forest (RF) classifier was exploited to detect these activities based on the wrist motions and optical HR. The highest overall accuracy of 89.6 ± 3.9% was achieved with a forest of a size of 64 trees and 13-s signal segments with 90% overlap. Removing the HR-derived features decreased the classification accuracy of high-intensity cycling by almost 7%, but did not affect the classification accuracies of other activities. A feature reduction utilizing the feature importance scores of RF was also carried out and resulted in a shrunken feature set of only 21 features. The overall accuracy of the classification utilizing the shrunken feature set was 89.4 ± 4.2%, which is almost equivalent to the above-mentioned peak overall accuracy.</p

    Entropy and bispectral index for assessment of sedation, analgesia and the effects of unpleasant stimuli in critically ill patients: an observational study

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    INTRODUCTION: Sedative and analgesic drugs are frequently used in critically ill patients. Their overuse may prolong mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the intensive care unit. Guidelines recommend use of sedation protocols that include sedation scores and trials of sedation cessation to minimize drug use. We evaluated processed electroencephalography (response and state entropy and bispectral index) as an adjunct to monitoring effects of commonly used sedative and analgesic drugs and intratracheal suctioning. METHODS: Electrodes for monitoring bispectral index and entropy were placed on the foreheads of 44 critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation and who previously had no brain dysfunction. Sedation was targeted individually using the Ramsay Sedation Scale, recorded every 2 hours or more frequently. Use of and indications for sedative and analgesic drugs and intratracheal suctioning were recorded manually and using a camera. At the end of the study, processed electroencephalographical and haemodynamic variables collected before and after each drug application and tracheal suctioning were analyzed. Ramsay score was used for comparison with processed electroencephalography when assessed within 15 minutes of an intervention. RESULTS: The indications for boli of sedative drugs exhibited statistically significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, differences in terms of their association with processed electroencephalographical parameters. Electroencephalographical variables decreased significantly after bolus, but a specific pattern in electroencephalographical variables before drug administration was not identified. The same was true for opiate administration. At both 30 minutes and 2 minutes before intratracheal suctioning, there was no difference in electroencephalographical or clinical signs in patients who had or had not received drugs 10 minutes before suctioning. Among patients who received drugs, electroencephalographical parameters returned to baseline more rapidly. In those cases in which Ramsay score was assessed before the event, processed electroencephalography exhibited high variation. CONCLUSIONS: Unpleasant or painful stimuli and sedative and analgesic drugs are associated with significant changes in processed electroencephalographical parameters. However, clinical indications for drug administration were not reflected by these electroencephalographical parameters, and barely by sedation level before drug administration or tracheal suction. This precludes incorporation of entropy and bispectral index as target variables for sedation and analgesia protocols in critically ill patients

    Intra- and inter-individual variation of BIS-index® and Entropy® during controlled sedation with midazolam/remifentanil and dexmedetomidine/remifentanil in healthy volunteers: an interventional study

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    INTRODUCTION: We studied intra-individual and inter-individual variability of two online sedation monitors, BIS and Entropy, in volunteers under sedation. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were sedated in a stepwise manner with doses of either midazolam and remifentanil or dexmedetomidine and remifentanil. One week later the procedure was repeated with the remaining drug combination. The doses were adjusted to achieve three different sedation levels (Ramsay Scores 2, 3 and 4) and controlled by a computer-driven drug-delivery system to maintain stable plasma concentrations of the drugs. At each level of sedation, BIS and Entropy (response entropy and state entropy) values were recorded for 20 minutes. Baseline recordings were obtained before the sedative medications were administered. RESULTS: Both inter-individual and intra-individual variability increased as the sedation level deepened. Entropy values showed greater variability than BIS(R) values, and the variability was greater during dexmedetomidine/remifentanil sedation than during midazolam/remifentanil sedation. CONCLUSIONS: The large intra-individual and inter-individual variability of BIS and Entropy values in sedated volunteers makes the determination of sedation levels by processed electroencephalogram (EEG) variables impossible. Reports in the literature which draw conclusions based on processed EEG variables obtained from sedated intensive care unit (ICU) patients may be inaccurate due to this variability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Nr. NCT00641563

    Detection of Beat-to-Beat Intervals from Wrist Photoplethysmography in Patients with Sinus Rhythm and Atrial Fibrillation after Surgery

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    Wrist photoplethysmography (PPG) allows unobtrusive monitoring of the heart rate (HR). PPG is affected by the capillary blood perfusion and the pumping function of the heart, which generally deteriorate with age and due to presence of cardiac arrhythmia. The performance of wrist PPG in monitoring beat-to-beat HR in older patients with arrhythmia has not been reported earlier. We monitored PPG from wrist in 18 patients recovering from surgery in the post anesthesia care unit, and evaluated the inter-beat interval (IBI) detection accuracy against ECG based R-to-R intervals (RRI). Nine subjects had sinus rhythm (SR, 68.0y±\pm10.2y, 6 males) and nine subjects had atrial fibrillation (AF, 71.3y±\pm7.8y, 4 males) during the recording. For the SR group, 99.44% of the beats were correctly identified, 2.39% extra beats were detected, and the mean absolute error (MAE) was 7.34 ms. For the AF group, 97.49% of the heartbeats were correctly identified, 2.26% extra beats were detected, and the MAE was 14.31 ms. IBI from the PPG were hence in close agreement with the ECG reference in both groups. The results suggest that wrist PPG provides a comfortable alternative to ECG and can be used for long-term monitoring and screening of AF episodes.Comment: Submitted to the 2018 IEEE International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatic

    Coagulopathy in Acute Puumala Hantavirus Infection

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    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), also called nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is mainly endemic in Europe and Russia. The clinical features include a low platelet count, altered coagulation, endothelial activation, and acute kidney injury (AKI). Multiple connections between coagulation pathways and inflammatory mediators, as well as complement and kallikrein-kinin systems, have been reported. The bleeding symptoms are usually mild. PUUV-infected patients also have an increased risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and thrombosis.Peer reviewe

    Comprehensive self-tracking of blood glucose and lifestyle with a mobile application in the management of gestational diabetes : a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (eMOM GDM study)

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    IntroductionGestational diabetes (GDM) causes various adverse short-term and long-term consequences for the mother and child, and its incidence is increasing globally. So far, the most promising digital health interventions for GDM management have involved healthcare professionals to provide guidance and feedback. The principal aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of comprehensive and real-time self-tracking with eMOM GDM mobile application (app) on glucose levels in women with GDM, and more broadly, on different other maternal and neonatal outcomes.Methods and analysisThis randomised controlled trial is carried out in Helsinki metropolitan area. We randomise 200 pregnant women with GDM into the intervention and the control group at gestational week (GW) 24-28 (baseline, BL). The intervention group receives standard antenatal care and the eMOM GDM app, while the control group will receive only standard care. Participants in the intervention group use the eMOM GDM app with continuous glucose metre (CGM) and activity bracelet for 1 week every month until delivery and an electronic 3-day food record every month until delivery. The follow-up visit after intervention takes place 3 months post partum for both groups. Data are collected by laboratory blood tests, clinical measurements, capillary glucose measures, wearable sensors, air displacement plethysmography and digital questionnaires. The primary outcome is fasting plasma glucose change from BL to GW 35-37. Secondary outcomes include, for example, self-tracked capillary fasting and postprandial glucose measures, change in gestational weight gain, change in nutrition quality, change in physical activity, medication use due to GDM, birth weight and fat percentage of the child.Ethics and disseminationThe study has been approved by Ethics Committee of the Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District. The results will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences.Peer reviewe
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