2 research outputs found

    Environmental Issues of Livestock Production in Developing Countries: Need for Government Intervention Using the Truck Based Approach

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    Globally, the natural environment faces a range of unprecedented challenges which are require a well-structured strategic approach in solving it. One of these challenges is the ever-increasing greenhouse gas emission. Currently majority of our daily activities directly or indirectly contributes to greenhouse gas emission. An effort was taken to understand better the principal function of livestock production in the pollution of the natural environment and to ascertain mitigation policies to curb the effects on human life.Theories such as the Enforcement Strategic Theory, Utilitarian Commitment Theory, Deterrence Theory, and the Social factors Commitment Based theory were used in this study. Already processed statistics, policy strategies, laws in economics as well as authors intuitive proposals and ideas were used in this study. It was ascertained that population growth, fluctuating economies, food preferences, and urbanization had imposed pressure on livestock production and the agricultural sector, thereby leading to the release of odor, ammonia, pathogens, excess phosphorus and nitrogen harming the natural environment and also contribute to greenhouse gas emission. A more significant proportion of the growth in crop production is anticipated because of a rise in the demand for livestock feed. It was found that most livestock farmers do not have a well-regulated operation in most developing countries. To reduce or eliminate these effects, the “truck-based approach” was therefore propounded and proposed to enhance the smooth movement of the livestock droppings to either the crop farm or to the processing house or to the storage room to reduce or prevent unnecessary dumping. Keywords: Livestock Production, Environmental Issues, Green House Gas, Truck Based Approach, Government Regulation, and Developing Countries. DOI: 10.7176/JBAH/10-22-04 Publication date: November 30th 202

    Adaptation of the Wound Healing Questionnaire universal-reporter outcome measure for use in global surgery trials (TALON-1 study): mixed-methods study and Rasch analysis

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    BackgroundThe Bluebelle Wound Healing Questionnaire (WHQ) is a universal-reporter outcome measure developed in the UK for remote detection of surgical-site infection after abdominal surgery. This study aimed to explore cross-cultural equivalence, acceptability, and content validity of the WHQ for use across low- and middle-income countries, and to make recommendations for its adaptation.MethodsThis was a mixed-methods study within a trial (SWAT) embedded in an international randomized trial, conducted according to best practice guidelines, and co-produced with community and patient partners (TALON-1). Structured interviews and focus groups were used to gather data regarding cross-cultural, cross-contextual equivalence of the individual items and scale, and conduct a translatability assessment. Translation was completed into five languages in accordance with Mapi recommendations. Next, data from a prospective cohort (SWAT) were interpreted using Rasch analysis to explore scaling and measurement properties of the WHQ. Finally, qualitative and quantitative data were triangulated using a modified, exploratory, instrumental design model.ResultsIn the qualitative phase, 10 structured interviews and six focus groups took place with a total of 47 investigators across six countries. Themes related to comprehension, response mapping, retrieval, and judgement were identified with rich cross-cultural insights. In the quantitative phase, an exploratory Rasch model was fitted to data from 537 patients (369 excluding extremes). Owing to the number of extreme (floor) values, the overall level of power was low. The single WHQ scale satisfied tests of unidimensionality, indicating validity of the ordinal total WHQ score. There was significant overall model misfit of five items (5, 9, 14, 15, 16) and local dependency in 11 item pairs. The person separation index was estimated as 0.48 suggesting weak discrimination between classes, whereas Cronbach's α was high at 0.86. Triangulation of qualitative data with the Rasch analysis supported recommendations for cross-cultural adaptation of the WHQ items 1 (redness), 3 (clear fluid), 7 (deep wound opening), 10 (pain), 11 (fever), 15 (antibiotics), 16 (debridement), 18 (drainage), and 19 (reoperation). Changes to three item response categories (1, not at all; 2, a little; 3, a lot) were adopted for symptom items 1 to 10, and two categories (0, no; 1, yes) for item 11 (fever).ConclusionThis study made recommendations for cross-cultural adaptation of the WHQ for use in global surgical research and practice, using co-produced mixed-methods data from three continents. Translations are now available for implementation into remote wound assessment pathways