18,224 research outputs found

### Application of quantitative microscopy to ceramics

Case studies were made of the graphite structures in cast iron. The form, size, distribution, and direction of the structures are described. Microscopic and stereoscopic techniques are discussed

### ppK- bound states from Skyrmions

The bound kaon approach to the strangeness in the Skyrme model is applied to
investigating the possibility of deeply bound $ppK^-$ states. We describe the
$ppK^-$ system as two-Skyrmion around which a kaon field fluctuates. Each
Skyrmion is rotated in the space of SU(2) collective coordinate. The rotational
motions are quantized to be projected onto the spin-singlet proton-proton
state. We derive the equation of motion for the kaon in the background field of
two Skyrmions at fixed positions. From the numerical solution of the equation
of motion, it is found that the energy of $K^-$ can be considerably small, and
that the distribution of $K^-$ shows molecular nature of the $ppK^-$ system.
For this deep binding, the Wess-Zumino-Witten term plays an important role. The
total energy of the $ppK^-$ system is estimated in the Born-Oppenheimer
approximation. The binding energy of the $ppK^-$ state is $B.E.\simeq 126$ MeV.
The mean square radius of the $pp$ subsystem is $\sqrt{}\simeq 1.6$
fm.Comment: Oct 2007, 15 pages, 8 figures; added references, corrected typo

### Non-Abelian Stokes Theorem and Quark Confinement in SU(3) Yang-Mills Gauge Theory

We derive a new version of SU(3) non-Abelian Stokes theorem by making use of
the coherent state representation on the coset space $SU(3)/(U(1)\times
U(1))=F_2$, the flag space. Then we outline a derivation of the area law of the
Wilson loop in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in the maximal Abelian gauge (The
detailed exposition will be given in a forthcoming article). This derivation is
performed by combining the non-Abelian Stokes theorem with the reformulation of
the Yang-Mills theory as a perturbative deformation of a topological field
theory recently proposed by one of the authors. Within this framework, we show
that the fundamental quark is confined even if $G=SU(3)$ is broken by partial
gauge fixing into $H=U(2)$ just as $G$ is broken to $H=U(1) \times U(1)$. An
origin of the area law is related to the geometric phase of the Wilczek-Zee
holonomy for U(2). Abelian dominance is an immediate byproduct of these results
and magnetic monopole plays the dominant role in this derivation.Comment: 14 pages, Latex, no figures, version accepted for publication in Mod.
Phys. Lett. A (some comments are added in the final parts

### Realization of Strong Coupling Fixed Point in Multilevel Kondo Models

Impurity four- and six-level Kondo model, in which an ion is tunneling among
four- and six-stable points and interacting with surrounding conduction
electrons, are investigated by using the perturbative and numerical
renormalization group methods. It is shown that purely orbital Kondo effects
occur at low temperatures in these systems which are direct generalizations of
the Kondo effect in the so-called two-level system. This result offers a good
explanation for the enhanced and magnetically robust Sommerfeld coefficient
observed in SmOs_4Sb_12 and some other filled-skutterudites.Comment: 3 pages, 3 figures, for proceedings of ASR-WYP-2005. To be published
in Journal of Physical Society Japan supplemen

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### Evolution of mixing state of black carbon in polluted air from Tokyo

The evolution of the mixing state of black carbon aerosol (BC) was investigated using a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) in polluted air transported from Tokyo. Ground-based measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted at a suburban site (Kisai) 50 km north of Tokyo during July-August 2004. The ratio of 2-pentyl nitrate (2-PeONO2) to n-pentane (n-C5H12) was used to derive the photochemical age. According to the SP2 measurement, the number fraction of thickly coated BC (Shell/Corel Ratio > ca. 2) with a core diameter of 180 nm increased at the rate of 1.9% h-1, as the photochemical clock proceeded under land-sea breeze circulation. Positive matrix factorization was applied to investigate the time-dependent contributions of different coating materials using the mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and organics measured using an aerosol mass spectrometer. The main coating materials found in this study were sulfate and organics. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union

### Future of Ultraviolet Astronomy Based on Six Years of IUE Research

Physical insights into the various astronomical objects which were studied using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. Topics covered included galaxies, cool stars, hot stars, close binaries, variable stars, the interstellar medium, the solar system, and IUE follow-on missions

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