100 research outputs found

    Subsampling (weighted smooth) empirical copula processes

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    A key tool to carry out inference on the unknown copula when modeling a continuous multivariate distribution is a nonparametric estimator known as the empirical copula. One popular way of approximating its sampling distribution consists of using the multiplier bootstrap. The latter is however characterized by a high implementation cost. Given the rank-based nature of the empirical copula, the classical empirical bootstrap of Efron does not appear to be a natural alternative, as it relies on resamples which contain ties. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of subsampling in the aforementioned framework. The latter consists of basing the inference on statistic values computed from subsamples of the initial data. One of its advantages in the rank-based context under consideration is that the formed subsamples do not contain ties. Another advantage is its asymptotic validity under minimalistic conditions. In this work, we show the asymptotic validity of subsampling for several (weighted, smooth) empirical copula processes both in the case of serially independent observations and time series. In the former case, subsampling is observed to be substantially better than the empirical bootstrap and equivalent, overall, to the multiplier bootstrap in terms of finite-sample performance.Comment: 34 pages, 5 figures, 4 + 8 table

    A note on conditional versus joint unconditional weak convergence in bootstrap consistency results

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    The consistency of a bootstrap or resampling scheme is classically validated by weak convergence of conditional laws. However, when working with stochastic processes in the space of bounded functions and their weak convergence in the Hoffmann-J{\o}rgensen sense, an obstacle occurs: due to possible non-measurability, neither laws nor conditional laws are well-defined. Starting from an equivalent formulation of weak convergence based on the bounded Lipschitz metric, a classical circumvent is to formulate bootstrap consistency in terms of the latter distance between what might be called a \emph{conditional law} of the (non-measurable) bootstrap process and the law of the limiting process. The main contribution of this note is to provide an equivalent formulation of bootstrap consistency in the space of bounded functions which is more intuitive and easy to work with. Essentially, the equivalent formulation consists of (unconditional) weak convergence of the original process jointly with two bootstrap replicates. As a by-product, we provide two equivalent formulations of bootstrap consistency for statistics taking values in separable metric spaces: the first in terms of (unconditional) weak convergence of the statistic jointly with its bootstrap replicates, the second in terms of convergence in probability of the empirical distribution function of the bootstrap replicates. Finally, the asymptotic validity of bootstrap-based confidence intervals and tests is briefly revisited, with particular emphasis on the, in practice unavoidable, Monte Carlo approximation of conditional quantiles.Comment: 21 pages, 1 Figur

    Goodness-of-fit testing based on a weighted bootstrap: A fast large-sample alternative to the parametric bootstrap

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    The process comparing the empirical cumulative distribution function of the sample with a parametric estimate of the cumulative distribution function is known as the empirical process with estimated parameters and has been extensively employed in the literature for goodness-of-fit testing. The simplest way to carry out such goodness-of-fit tests, especially in a multivariate setting, is to use a parametric bootstrap. Although very easy to implement, the parametric bootstrap can become very computationally expensive as the sample size, the number of parameters, or the dimension of the data increase. An alternative resampling technique based on a fast weighted bootstrap is proposed in this paper, and is studied both theoretically and empirically. The outcome of this work is a generic and computationally efficient multiplier goodness-of-fit procedure that can be used as a large-sample alternative to the parametric bootstrap. In order to approximately determine how large the sample size needs to be for the parametric and weighted bootstraps to have roughly equivalent powers, extensive Monte Carlo experiments are carried out in dimension one, two and three, and for models containing up to nine parameters. The computational gains resulting from the use of the proposed multiplier goodness-of-fit procedure are illustrated on trivariate financial data. A by-product of this work is a fast large-sample goodness-of-fit procedure for the bivariate and trivariate t distribution whose degrees of freedom are fixed.Comment: 26 pages, 5 tables, 1 figur

    Distribution functions of linear combinations of lattice polynomials from the uniform distribution

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    We give the distribution functions, the expected values, and the moments of linear combinations of lattice polynomials from the uniform distribution. Linear combinations of lattice polynomials, which include weighted sums, linear combinations of order statistics, and lattice polynomials, are actually those continuous functions that reduce to linear functions on each simplex of the standard triangulation of the unit cube. They are mainly used in aggregation theory, combinatorial optimization, and game theory, where they are known as discrete Choquet integrals and Lovasz extensions.Comment: 11 page

    Large-sample tests of extreme-value dependence for multivariate copulas

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    Starting from the characterization of extreme-value copulas based on max-stability, large-sample tests of extreme-value dependence for multivariate copulas are studied. The two key ingredients of the proposed tests are the empirical copula of the data and a multiplier technique for obtaining approximate p-values for the derived statistics. The asymptotic validity of the multiplier approach is established, and the finite-sample performance of a large number of candidate test statistics is studied through extensive Monte Carlo experiments for data sets of dimension two to five. In the bivariate case, the rejection rates of the best versions of the tests are compared with those of the test of Ghoudi, Khoudraji and Rivest (1998) recently revisited by Ben Ghorbal, Genest and Neslehova (2009). The proposed procedures are illustrated on bivariate financial data and trivariate geological data.Comment: 19 page

    A review of methods for capacity identification in Choquet integral based multi-attribute utility theory: Applications of the Kappalab R package

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    The application of multi-attribute utility theory whose aggregation process is based on the Choquet integral requires the prior identification of a capacity. The main approaches to capacity identification proposed in the literature are reviewed and their advantages and inconveniences are discussed. All the reviewed methods have been implemented within the Kappalab R package. Their application is illustrated on a detailed example.Multi-criteria decision aiding; Multi-attribute utility theory; Choquet integral; Free software

    Some smooth sequential empirical copula processes and their multiplier bootstraps under strong mixing

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    A broad class of smooth empirical copulas that contains the empirical beta copula proposed by Segers, Sibuya and Tsukahara is studied. Conditions under which the corresponding sequential empirical copula processes converge weakly are provided. Specific members of this general class of smooth estimators that depend on a scalar parameter determining the amount of marginal smoothing and a functional parameter controlling the shape of the smoothing region are proposed. The empirical investigation of the influence of these parameters suggests to focus on a subclass of data-adaptive smooth nonparametric copulas. To allow the use of the proposed class of smooth estimators in inference procedures on an unknown copula, including in change-point analysis, natural smooth extensions of the sequential dependent multiplier bootstrap are asymptotically validated and their finite-sample performance is studied through Monte Carlo experiments.Comment: 48 pages, 5 figure
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