74 research outputs found

    Experimental studies on effect of speaking mode on spoken term detection

    Get PDF
    The objective of this paper is to study the effect of speaking mode on spoken term detection (STD) system. The experiments are conducted with respect to query words recorded in isolated manner and words cut out from continuous speech. Durations of phonemes in query words greatly vary between these two modes. Hence pattern matching stage plays a crucial role which takes care of temporal variations. Matching is done using Subsequence dynamic time warping (DTW) on posterior features of query and reference utterances, obtained by training Multilayer perceptron (MLP). The difference in performance of the STD system for different phoneme groupings (45, 25, 15 and 6 classes) is also analyzed. Our STD system is tested on Telugu broadcast news. Major difference in STD system performance is observed for recorded and cut-out types of query words. It is observed that STD system performance is better with query words cut out from continuous speech compared to words recorded in isolated manner. This performance difference can be accounted for large temporal variations

    Cowpea and groundnut haulms fodder trading and its lessons for multidimensional cowpea improvement for mixed crop livestock systems in West Africa

    Get PDF
    Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits. Significant (P < 0.05) genotypic dependent variations were observed in yields (kg/ha) of grains (537–1082) and haulms (1173–3368), though significant (P < 0.05) effects of location and year were observed. Grain and fodder yield had a tendency to be positively correlated (r = 0.26, P = 0.07). Haulms were analyzed for nitrogen (N), fiber fractions, in vitro digestibility, and metabolizable energy content. Highly significant variations were observed in all genotypic and livestock nutrition traits, although location and year had significant effects. Trade-offs between grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits were largely absent and haulm acid detergent lignin and grain yield were even inversely correlated (r = -0.28, P = 0.05), that is high grain yielders had decreased haulm lignin. However, haulm N and grain yield also tended to be negatively associated (r = -0.26, P = 0.07). Haulm fodder quality traits and haulm yield were mostly positively correlated (P < 0.05). Broad sense heritabilities for grain and fodder yield were 0.50 and 0.29, respectively, while heritability for haulm fodder quality traits ranged from 0.61 to 0.67, providing opportunities for concomitant increase in grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits. Selection of the 10 highest ranking genotypes for grain yield, haulm yield, haulm N, and haulm in vitro organic matter digestibility showed selection groups overlapping, suggesting that multi-trait selection is feasible. Economical evaluation showed that choice of primary traits is context specific, highlighting the need for identifying and targeting appropriate genotypes to fit different production systems. Considering haulm quantity and quality as traits of economic value can increase overall plant value in mixed crop-livestock systems

    Klotho pathways, myelination disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and epigenetic drugs

    Get PDF
    In this review we outline a rationale for identifying neuroprotectants aimed at inducing endogenous Klotho activity and expression, which is epigenetic action, by definition. Such an approach should promote remyelination and/or stimulate myelin repair by acting on mitochondrial function, thereby heralding a life-saving path forward for patients suffering from neuroinflammatory diseases. Disorders of myelin in the nervous system damage the transmission of signals, resulting in loss of vision, motion, sensation, and other functions depending on the affected nerves, currently with no effective treatment. Klotho genes and their single-pass transmembrane Klotho proteins are powerful governors of the threads of life and death, true to the origin of their name, Fates, in Greek mythology. Among its many important functions, Klotho is an obligatory co-receptor that binds, activates, and/or potentiates critical fibroblast growth factor activity. Since the discovery of Klotho a little over two decades ago, it has become ever more apparent that when Klotho pathways go awry, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction take over, and age-related chronic disorders are likely to follow. The physiological consequences can be wide ranging, potentially wreaking havoc on the brain, eye, kidney, muscle, and more. Central nervous system disorders, neurodegenerative in nature, and especially those affecting the myelin sheath, represent worthy targets for advancing therapies that act upon Klotho pathways. Current drugs for these diseases, even therapeutics that are disease modifying rather than treating only the symptoms, leave much room for improvement. It is thus no wonder that this topic has caught the attention of biomedical researchers around the world.https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/biores.2020.0004Published versio

    Genetic variability for fodder quality traits in sorghum under different water regimes

    Get PDF
    Sorghum is grown as a dual purpose crop yielding food (grain) and fodder (stover) in marginal environments of Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Application of genomics and trait discovery tools in breeding program can expedite genetic improvement of fodder quality. Earlier reports suggested that a difference of one percentage unit in stover digestibility increases livestock output of 6 to 8%. To characterize fodder quality traits in sorghum and to identify genomic regions related to t[hose traits, a set of mapping population parents (24) were evaluated under two water regimes (control and stress) over 3 years at ICRISAT-Patancheru. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD%) – a key stover quality trait, test weight (TW-g), stalk yield (SY-Kg/ha) and grain yield (GY-Kg/ha) recorded significant variation across genotype, treatment, year and interaction effects. Across season analyses revealed a range of 45.8% to 50.4% for IVOMD, variation from 1.9g to 4.1g for TW. The SY and GY recorded a mean value of 4552 Kg/ha and 3152 Kg/ha, across years. While heritability estimates across seasons were on higher side for TW (0.85), SY (0.77) and IVOMD (0.70), it was lower for GY (0.39). A positive correlation of 0.63 and 0.79 was observed for SY – IVOMD and plant height (PH) - SY, respectively. This further implied that an opportunity exists for simultaneous improvement in both yield and fodder quality. We identified a parental set of ICSV1 and ICSV700 having consistently contrasting values across all seasons for IVMOD for further genetic mapping of the fodder quality traits in sorghum

    Pathogenic mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities

    Get PDF
    Herein we trace links between biochemical pathways, pathogenesis, and metabolic diseases to set the stage for new therapeutic advances. Cellular and acellular microorganisms including bacteria and viruses are primary pathogenic drivers that cause disease. Missing from this statement are subcellular compartments, importantly mitochondria, which can be pathogenic by themselves, also serving as key metabolic disease intermediaries. The breakdown of food molecules provides chemical energy to power cellular processes, with mitochondria as powerhouses and ATP as the principal energy carrying molecule. Most animal cell ATP is produced by mitochondrial synthase; its central role in metabolism has been known for >80 years. Metabolic disorders involving many organ systems are prevalent in all age groups. Progressive pathogenic mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of genetic mitochondrial diseases, the most common phenotypic expression of inherited metabolic disorders. Confluent genetic, metabolic, and mitochondrial axes surface in diabetes, heart failure, neurodegenerative disease, and even in the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2021.11480

    Substrate Specifity Profiling of the Aspergillus fumigatus Proteolytic Secretome Reveals Consensus Motifs with Predominance of Ile/Leu and Phe/Tyr

    Get PDF
    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) can cause devastating infections in immunocompromised individuals. Early diagnosis improves patient outcomes but remains challenging because of the limitations of current methods. To augment the clinician's toolkit for rapid diagnosis of AF infections, we are investigating AF secreted proteases as novel diagnostic targets. The AF genome encodes up to 100 secreted proteases, but fewer than 15 of these enzymes have been characterized thus far. Given the large number of proteases in the genome, studies focused on individual enzymes may overlook potential diagnostic biomarkers.As an alternative, we employed a combinatorial library of internally quenched fluorogenic probes (IQFPs) to profile the global proteolytic secretome of an AF clinical isolate in vitro. Comparative protease activity profiling revealed 212 substrate sequences that were cleaved by AF secreted proteases but not by normal human serum. A central finding was that isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine predominated at each of the three variable positions of the library (44.1%, 59.1%, and 57.0%, respectively) among substrate sequences cleaved by AF secreted proteases. In contrast, fewer than 10% of the residues at each position of cleaved sequences were cationic or anionic. Consensus substrate motifs were cleaved by thermostable serine proteases that retained activity up to 50°C. Precise proteolytic cleavage sites were reliably determined by a simple, rapid mass spectrometry-based method, revealing predominantly non-prime side specificity. A comparison of the secreted protease activities of three AF clinical isolates revealed consistent protease substrate specificity fingerprints. However, secreted proteases of A. flavus, A. nidulans, and A. terreus strains exhibited striking differences in their proteolytic signatures.This report provides proof-of-principle for the use of protease substrate specificity profiling to define the proteolytic secretome of Aspergillus fumigatus. Expansion of this technique to protease secretion during infection could lead to development of novel approaches to fungal diagnosis

    Immunological control of herpes simplex virus infections

    Full text link

    A New Approach to Project Risk Navigation

    No full text