57 research outputs found

    The use of electrical discharge for ignition and control of combustion of solid propellants

    Get PDF
    As the first step of the study of the combustion control of solid propellants by electrical discharges, the effects of an arc discharge, which flows along the burning surface, on the burning rate and on the increase of enthalpy of the combustion product were investigated. For specially devised composite propellants, which are composed of Al and Teflon powders, it was shown that the combination can be controlled by an arc discharge; the combustion continues when the arc discharge is applied and is interrupted when the arc discharge breaks. In the present investigation, it was also shown that an arc discharge coupled with a high-frequency electrical discharge has potential as an effective ignition method for solid propellants. For the application of this type of combustion control to an ignitor for a solid propellant rocket motor or to a control rocket motor, this method lacks flexibility in the configuration scale and needs relatively high electric power at the present stage

    Evolution of an endofungal Lifestyle: Deductions from the Burkholderia rhizoxinica Genome

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><it>Burkholderia rhizoxinica </it>is an intracellular symbiont of the phytopathogenic zygomycete <it>Rhizopus microsporus</it>, the causative agent of rice seedling blight. The endosymbiont produces the antimitotic macrolide rhizoxin for its host. It is vertically transmitted within vegetative spores and is essential for spore formation of the fungus. To shed light on the evolution and genetic potential of this model organism, we analysed the whole genome of <it>B. rhizoxinica </it>HKI 0454 - a type strain of endofungal <it>Burkholderia </it>species.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The genome consists of a structurally conserved chromosome and two plasmids. Compared to free-living <it>Burkholderia </it>species, the genome is smaller in size and harbors less transcriptional regulator genes. Instead, we observed accumulation of transposons over the genome. Prediction of primary metabolic pathways and transporters suggests that endosymbionts consume host metabolites like citrate, but might deliver some amino acids and cofactors to the host. The rhizoxin biosynthesis gene cluster shows evolutionary traces of horizontal gene transfer. Furthermore, we analysed gene clusters coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Notably, <it>B. rhizoxinica </it>lacks common genes which are dedicated to quorum sensing systems, but is equipped with a large number of virulence-related factors and putative type III effectors.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p><it>B. rhizoxinica </it>is the first endofungal bacterium, whose genome has been sequenced. Here, we present models of evolution, metabolism and tools for host-symbiont interaction of the endofungal bacterium deduced from whole genome analyses. Genome size and structure suggest that <it>B. rhizoxinica </it>is in an early phase of adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle (genome in transition). By analysis of tranporters and metabolic pathways we predict how metabolites might be exchanged between the symbiont and its host. Gene clusters for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites represent novel targets for genomic mining of cryptic natural products. <it>In silico </it>analyses of virulence-associated genes, secreted proteins and effectors might inspire future studies on molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial-fungal interaction.</p