5,768 research outputs found

    The Dust Mantle of Comet 9P/Tempel 1: Dynamical Constraints on Physical Properties

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    The trajectories of dust particles ejected from a comet are affected by solar radiation pressure as a function of their ratios of radiation pressure cross section to mass. Therefore, a study on the orbital evolution of the particles caused by the radiation pressure reveals the physical properties of dust on the surface of the comet nucleus. In the course of NASA's Deep Impact mission, the ejecta plume evolved under the influence of the radiation pressure. From the evolution and shape of the plume, we have succeeded in obtaining β0.4\beta \approx 0.4, where β\beta is the ratio of the radiation pressure to the solar gravity. Taking into account β0.4\beta \approx 0.4 as well as the observational constraints of a high color temperature and a small silicate-feature strength, dust particles ejected from the surface of comet 9P/Tempel 1 are likely compact dust aggregates of sizes 20μ\approx 20\,\mum (mass 108\sim 10^{-8}\,g). This is comparable to the major dust on the surface of comet 1P/Halley (10μ\sim 10\mum) inferred from in-situ measurements and theoretical considerations. Since such dust aggregates with β0.4\beta \approx 0.4 must have survived on the surface against jets due to ice sublimation, the temperature of ice in the nucleus must be kept below 145\,K, which is much lower than equilibrium temperature determined by solar irradiation and thermal emission. These facts indicate that 9P/Tempel 1 has a dust mantle composed of 20μ20\,\mum-sized dust aggregates with low thermal conductivities 1ergcm1K1s1\sim 1 \, {\rm erg\, cm}^{-1} \, {\rm K}^{-1}\,{\rm s}^{-1}.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Reentrant transition in coupled noisy oscillators

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    We report on a novel type of instability observed in a noisy oscillator unidirectionally coupled to a pacemaker. Using a phase oscillator model, we find that, as the coupling strength is increased, the noisy oscillator lags behind the pacemaker more frequently and the phase slip rate increases, which may not be observed in averaged phase models such as the Kuramoto model. Investigation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation enables us to obtain the reentrant transition line between the synchronized state and the phase slip state. We verify our theory using the Brusselator model, suggesting that this reentrant transition can be found in a wide range of limit cycle oscillators.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figure

    The Effects of a Stellar Encounter on a Planetesimal Disk

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    We investigate the effects of a passing stellar encounter on a planetesimal disk through analytical calculations and numerical simulations, and derive the boundary radius (aplaneta_{\rm planet}) outside which planet formation is inhibited by disruptive collisions with high relative velocities.Comment: 25 pages, 11 figures, included in 15 tex-files, 7 ps-files and 4 eps-file

    Evolution of dust grain size distribution by shattering in the interstellar medium: robustness and uncertainty

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    Shattering of dust grains in the interstellar medium is a viable mechanism of small grain production in galaxies. We examine the robustness or uncertainty in the theoretical predictions of shattering. We identify P1P_1 (the critical pressure above which the deformation destroys the original lattice structures) as the most important quantity in determining the timescale of small grain production, and confirm that the same P1/tP_1/t (tt is the duration of shattering) gives the same grain size distribution [n(a)n(a), where aa is the grain radius] after shattering within a factor of 3. The uncertainty in the fraction of shocked material that is eventually ejected as fragments causes uncertainties in n(a)n(a) by a factor of 1.3 and 1.6 for silicate and carbonaceous dust, respectively. The size distribution of shattered fragments have minor effects as long as the power index of the fragment size distribution is less than ~ 3.5, since the slope of grain size distribution n(a)n(a) continuously change by shattering and becomes consistent with n(a)a3.5n(a)\propto a^{-3.5}. The grain velocities as a function of grain radius can have an imprint in the grain size distribution especially for carbonaceous dust. We also show that the formulation of shattering can be simplified without losing sufficient precision.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, Accepted for publication in Earth, Planets, and Space (Special Issue: Cosmic Dust V