2,150 research outputs found

    Prediction of service life of aircraft structural components using the half-cycle method

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    The service life of aircraft structural components undergoing random stress cycling was analyzed by the application of fracture mechanics. The initial crack sizes at the critical stress points for the fatigue-crack growth analysis were established through proof load tests. The fatigue-crack growth rates for random stress cycles were calculated using the half-cycle method. A new equation was developed for calculating the number of remaining flights for the structural components. The number of remaining flights predicted by the new equation is much lower than that predicted by the conventional equation

    Accuracies of southwell and force/stiffness methods in the prediction of buckling strength of hypersonic aircraft wing tubular panels

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    Accuracies of the Southwell method and the force/stiffness (F/S) method are examined when the methods were used in the prediction of buckling loads of hypersonic aircraft wing tubular panels, based on nondestructive buckling test data. Various factors affecting the accuracies of the two methods were discussed. Effects of load cutoff point in the nondestructive buckling tests on the accuracies of the two methods were discussed in great detail. For the tubular panels under pure compression, the F/S method was found to give more accurate buckling load predictions than the Southwell method, which excessively overpredicts the buckling load. It was found that the Southwell method required a higher load cutoff point, as compared with the F/S method. In using the F/S method for predicting the buckling load of tubular panels under pure compression, the load cutoff point of approximately 50 percent of the critical load could give reasonably accurate predictions

    Application of Finite Elastic Theory to the Deformation of Rubbery Materials

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    The purpose of this discussion, then, is to show how the nature of the strain energy function can be deduced from experiments on rubbery materials

    Thermal behavior of a titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel

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    Finite element thermal stress analysis was performed on a rectangular titanium honecomb-core sandwich panel which is subjected to thermal load with a temperature gradient across its depth. The distributions of normal stresses in the face sheets and the face-sheet/sandwich-core interfacial shear stresses are presented. The thermal buckling of the heated face sheet was analyzed by assuming the face sheet to be resting on an elastic foundation representing the sandwich core. Thermal buckling curves and thermal buckling load surface are presented for setting the limit for temperature gradient across the panel depth

    Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system

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    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer

    Combined-load buckling behavior of metal-matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

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    Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels with the consideration of transverse shear effects of the core. The sandwich panel is fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that the square panel has the highest combined load buckling strength, and that the buckling strength decreases sharply with the increases of both temperature and panel aspect ratio. The effect of layup (fiber orientation) on the buckling strength of the panels was studied in detail. The metal matrix composite sandwich panel was much more efficient than the sandwich panel with nonreinforced face sheets and had the same specific weight

    Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter subjected to reentry aerodynamic heating

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    A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite-element computer program and NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite-element computer programs were used in the thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter subjected to reentry aerodynamic heating. A SPAR structural model was set up for the entire left wing of the orbiter, and NASTRAN structural models were set up for: (1) a wing segment located at midspan of the orbiter left wing, and (2) a fuselage segment located at midfuselage. The thermal stress distributions in the orbiter structure were obtained and the critical high thermal stress regions were identified. It was found that the thermal stresses induced in the orbiter structure during reentry were relatively low. The thermal stress predictions from the whole wing model were considered to be more accurate than those from the wing segment model because the former accounts for temperature and stress effects throughout the entire wing

    Open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horseshoe and elliptic composite curved bars subjected to end forces

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    The multilayer theory of anisotropic elasticity and a finite element method were used to analyze the open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horseshoe and elliptic laminated composite curved bars. Two types of laminations, solid laminations and sandwich laminations, were analyzed. It was found that the open-mode delamination stress concentration could be greatly increased in these two types of curved bars by decreasing their aspect ratios. The open-mode delamination stress concentration generated in the solid laminations was found to be far more severe than that generated in the sandwich laminations. The horseshoe curved bar may be used to determine both the open-mode delamination strength of solidly laminated composites and the open-mode debonding strength of sandwiched laminated composites. However, the elliptic curved bar is only good for determining the open-mode delamination strength of solidly laminated composites

    Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis of hypersonic aircraft structural sandwich panels

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    The combined-load (compression and shear) buckling equations were established for orthotropic sandwich panels by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method to minimize the panel total potential energy. The resulting combined-load buckling equations were used to generate buckling interaction curves for super-plastically-formed/diffusion-bonded titanium truss-core sandwich panels and titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panels having the same specific weight. The relative combined-load buckling strengths of these two types of sandwich panels are compared with consideration of their sandwich orientations. For square and nearly square panels of both types, the combined load always induces symmetric buckling. As the panel aspect ratios increase, antisymmetric buckling will show up when the loading is shear-dominated combined loading. The square panel (either type) has the highest combined buckling strength, but the combined load buckling strength drops sharply as the panel aspect ratio increases. For square panels, the truss-core sandwich panel has higher compression-dominated combined load buckling strength. However, for shear dominated loading, the square honeycomb-core sandwich panel has higher shear-dominated combined load buckling strength
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