118 research outputs found

    Does disaggregated electricity feedback reduce domestic electricity consumption? A systematic review of the literature

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    We examine 12 studies on the efficacy of disaggregated energy feedback. The average electricity reduction across these studies is 4.5%. However, 4.5% may be a positively-biased estimate of the savings achievable across the entire population because all 12 studies are likely to be prone to opt-in bias hence none test the effect of disaggregated feedback on the general population. Disaggregation may not be required to achieve these savings: Aggregate feedback alone drives 3% reductions; and the 4 studies which directly compared aggregate feedback against disaggregated feedback found that aggregate feedback is at least as effective as disaggregated feedback, possibly because web apps are viewed less often than in-home-displays (in the short-term, at least) and because some users do not trust fine-grained disaggregation (although this may be an issue with the specific user interface studied). Disaggregated electricity feedback may help a motivated sub-group of the population to save more energy but fine-grained disaggregation may not be necessary to achieve these energy savings. Disaggregation has many uses beyond those discussed in this paper but, on the specific question of promoting energy reduction in the general population, there is no robust evidence that current forms of disaggregated energy feedback are more effective than aggregate energy feedback. The effectiveness of disaggregated feedback may increase if the general population become more energy-conscious (e.g. if energy prices rise or concern about climate change deepens); or if users' trust in fine-grained disaggregation improves; or if innovative new approaches or alternative disaggregation strategies (e.g. disaggregating by behaviour rather than by appliance) out-perform existing feedback. We also discuss opportunities for new research into the effectiveness of disaggregated feedback.Comment: Accepted for oral presentation at the 3rd International NILM Workshop, Vancouver, 14-15 May 201

    Metadata for Energy Disaggregation

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    Energy disaggregation is the process of estimating the energy consumed by individual electrical appliances given only a time series of the whole-home power demand. Energy disaggregation researchers require datasets of the power demand from individual appliances and the whole-home power demand. Multiple such datasets have been released over the last few years but provide metadata in a disparate array of formats including CSV files and plain-text README files. At best, the lack of a standard metadata schema makes it unnecessarily time-consuming to write software to process multiple datasets and, at worse, the lack of a standard means that crucial information is simply absent from some datasets. We propose a metadata schema for representing appliances, meters, buildings, datasets, prior knowledge about appliances and appliance models. The schema is relational and provides a simple but powerful inheritance mechanism.Comment: To appear in The 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Consumer Devices and Systems (CDS 2014) in V\"aster{\aa}s, Swede

    Stochastic Modelling and Optimisation of Internet Auction Processes

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    AbstractInternet auctions are an attractive mechanism for the exchange of goods at a non-fixed price point. The operation of these auctions can be run under a variety of parameters. In this paper, we provide a theoretical analysis of fixed time forward auctions in cases where a single bid or multiple bids are accepted in a single auction. A comparison of the economic benefits and the corresponding buyer and seller surpluses between the auctions where a single bid is accepted and the auctions where multiple bids are accepted is made. These models are verified through systematic simulation experiments, based on a series of operational assumptions, which characterise the arrival rate of bids, as well as the distribution from which the private values of buyers are sampled. Decision rules for optimising surplus under different auction fee structures are also given

    NILMTK: An Open Source Toolkit for Non-intrusive Load Monitoring

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    Non-intrusive load monitoring, or energy disaggregation, aims to separate household energy consumption data collected from a single point of measurement into appliance-level consumption data. In recent years, the field has rapidly expanded due to increased interest as national deployments of smart meters have begun in many countries. However, empirically comparing disaggregation algorithms is currently virtually impossible. This is due to the different data sets used, the lack of reference implementations of these algorithms and the variety of accuracy metrics employed. To address this challenge, we present the Non-intrusive Load Monitoring Toolkit (NILMTK); an open source toolkit designed specifically to enable the comparison of energy disaggregation algorithms in a reproducible manner. This work is the first research to compare multiple disaggregation approaches across multiple publicly available data sets. Our toolkit includes parsers for a range of existing data sets, a collection of preprocessing algorithms, a set of statistics for describing data sets, two reference benchmark disaggregation algorithms and a suite of accuracy metrics. We demonstrate the range of reproducible analyses which are made possible by our toolkit, including the analysis of six publicly available data sets and the evaluation of both benchmark disaggregation algorithms across such data sets.Comment: To appear in the fifth International Conference on Future Energy Systems (ACM e-Energy), Cambridge, UK. 201

    zkFL: Zero-Knowledge Proof-based Gradient Aggregation for Federated Learning

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    Federated Learning (FL) is a machine learning paradigm, which enables multiple and decentralized clients to collaboratively train a model under the orchestration of a central aggregator. Traditional FL solutions rely on the trust assumption of the centralized aggregator, which forms cohorts of clients in a fair and honest manner. However, a malicious aggregator, in reality, could abandon and replace the client's training models, or launch Sybil attacks to insert fake clients. Such malicious behaviors give the aggregator more power to control clients in the FL setting and determine the final training results. In this work, we introduce zkFL, which leverages zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) to tackle the issue of a malicious aggregator during the training model aggregation process. To guarantee the correct aggregation results, the aggregator needs to provide a proof per round. The proof can demonstrate to the clients that the aggregator executes the intended behavior faithfully. To further reduce the verification cost of clients, we employ a blockchain to handle the proof in a zero-knowledge way, where miners (i.e., the nodes validating and maintaining the blockchain data) can verify the proof without knowing the clients' local and aggregated models. The theoretical analysis and empirical results show that zkFL can achieve better security and privacy than traditional FL, without modifying the underlying FL network structure or heavily compromising the training speed

    Demo Abstract: NILMTK v0.2: A Non-intrusive Load Monitoring Toolkit for Large Scale Data Sets

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    In this demonstration, we present an open source toolkit for evaluating non-intrusive load monitoring research; a field which aims to disaggregate a household's total electricity consumption into individual appliances. The toolkit contains: a number of importers for existing public data sets, a set of preprocessing and statistics functions, a benchmark disaggregation algorithm and a set of metrics to evaluate the performance of such algorithms. Specifically, this release of the toolkit has been designed to enable the use of large data sets by only loading individual chunks of the whole data set into memory at once for processing, before combining the results of each chunk.Comment: 1st ACM International Conference on Embedded Systems For Energy-Efficient Buildings, 201