37 research outputs found

    Duration and Term Structure of Trade Agreements

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    Why are some trade agreements concluded for a limited period of time while others have the form of evergreen contracts supplemented with an advance termination notice clause? We use a dynamic incomplete contracting model to demonstrate that the time structure of the trade agreement is related to the nature of the underlying trade-related investments (or other types of irreversible resource adjustments). If these investments are lumpy and specialized to trade in a particular homogeneous good, the agreements with the \u85xed term of duration are more likely. The xed-term agreement provides incentives for the initial investment but leaves the parties the exibility to revisit the need for future investment by resorting to renegotiation. If the agreement covers trade in goods or services requiring incremental investments with spillovers of the investment bene\u85ts across industries, there is a lower risk of overinvestment. Therefore, the parties are more likely to choose an evergreen agreement (with an advance termination notice or an escape clause). We show that these predictions are consistent with the econometric evidence on the trade agreements to which the U.S. is a party. We are grateful to Arnaud Costinot, Petros Mavroidis, Marc Melitz and the participants of the Midwest In

    Duration and Term Structure of Trade Agreements

    Get PDF
    Why are some trade agreements concluded for a limited period of time while others have the form of evergreen contracts supplemented with an advance termination notice clause? We use a dynamic incomplete contracting model to demonstrate that the time structure of the trade agreement is related to the nature of the underlying trade-related investments (or other types of irreversible resource adjustments). If these investments are lumpy and specialized to trade in a particular homogeneous good, the agreements with the fixed term of duration are more likely. The fixed-term agreement provides incentives for the initial investment but leaves the parties the flexibility to revisit the need for future investment by resorting to renegotiation. If the agreement covers trade in goods or services requiring incremental investments with spillovers of the investment benefits across industries, there is a lower risk of overinvestment. Therefore, the parties are more likely to choose an evergreen agreement (with an advance termination notice or an escape clause). We show that these predictions are consistent with the econometric evidence on the trade agreements to which the U.S. is a party.

    Reconstruction of Chirp Mass in the Search of Compact Binaries

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    Excess energy method is used in searches of gravitational waves (GWs) produced from sources with poorly modeled characteristics. It identifies GW events by searching for a coincidence appearance of excess energy in a GW detector network. While it is sensitive to a wide range of signal morphologies, the energy outliers can be populated by background noise events (background), thereby reducing the statistical confidence of a true signal. However, if the physics of the source is partially understood, weak model dependent constraints can be imposed to suppress the background. This letter presents a novel idea of using the reconstructed chirp mass along with two goodness of fit parameters for suppressing background when search is focused on GW produced from the compact binary coalescence

    Microbiome analysis of healthy and diseased sponges Lubomirskia baicalensis by using cell cultures of primmorphs

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    Endemic sponges (Demosponges, Lubomirskiidae) dominate the fauna of the littoral zone of Lake Baikal. These freshwater sponges live in symbiosis with diverse eukaryotes and prokaryotes, including chlorophyll-containing microalgae. Within the last 5 years, the incidence of sponge disease and mortality events in Lake Baikal has increased. The etiology and ecology of these events remain unknown, in part because of the lack of models to study sponge-microbe interactions. In this work, we tested the use of primmorph cell cultures of Lubomirskia baicalensis as a tool for investigating the microbiomes of sponges. We infected primmorphs, cultured in vitro, with samples from diseased sponges and observed, by microscopy, disease symptoms, including loss of green symbionts, associated with mass die-off events. Subsequent sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that the microbiome community of healthy sponge and primmorphs formed a group separate from the community of diseased sponges and infected primmorphs. This confirms the suitability of the primmorph cell culture as a model sponge system. We also discovered mass mortality of green symbionts (Chlorophyta) was associated with a shift in the microbial communities of sponges/primmorphs. Microbes in diseased sponges, and infected primmorphs, belonged mainly to the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria and these families Flavobacteriaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Moraxellaceae. Primmorphs cell culture may provide a model to study interactions between these bacteria and their host and elucidate the cause of mass mortality events

    Influence of Heat Stress and Water Availability on Productivity of Silage Maize (<i>Zea mays</i> L.) under Different Tillage and Fertilizer Management Practices in Rostov Region of Russia

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    The aridization of the climate negatively affects the growth and development of plants and their productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of heat stress and water availability on maize for silage under aridization and to find out the effectiveness of technological methods to maximize the use of available moisture. A long-term multifactorial experiment was performed during the period 1991–2020 in the region south of Rostov, Russia. The long-term multifactorial experiment is located in a zone of high heat supply and insufficient moisture, so the latter factor limits the yield of corn and dictates the need to find solutions to increase its environmental sustainability in extreme weather conditions. The values of the hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) were determined for the period of maize cultivation for each year of the study, ranked in ascending order and grouped into clusters. The results were mathematically processed by calculating the mean values (M) and their standard deviations (±SEM) with Statistica 13.3 software. The optimum conditions for silage maize development were found under the combination of 265 mm of rainfall and a 19.8 °C average temperature during the growing season. The maximum yield of silage maize was 33.8–45.2 t ha−1. In dry years (HTC = 0.3), tillage had an advantage: the yield increase was 0.2–1.6 t ha−1. In wet years, moldboard tillage was preferable: the yield increase was 0.3–2.9 t ha−1. The application of farmyard manure for fertilization increased the yield by 10.5–41.9%. Increasing the fertilizer rate by 1.5 times increased the yield by 21.0–59.8%. In drought, tillage and average fertilizer rate provided returns by increasing yields up to 7.7 kg/kg. Our study provides valuable recommendations in fodder production, promotes moisture conservation, preserves soil fertility on the slopes when cultivating corn for silage, and will be useful to specialists in improving the efficiency of agricultural production

    Knomics-Biota - a system for exploratory analysis of human gut microbiota data

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    Abstract Background Metagenomic surveys of human microbiota are becoming increasingly widespread in academic research as well as in food and pharmaceutical industries and clinical context. Intuitive tools for investigating experimental data are of high interest to researchers. Results Knomics-Biota is a web-based resource for exploratory analysis of human gut metagenomes. Users can generate and share analytical reports corresponding to common experimental schemes (like case-control study or paired comparison). Interactive visualizations and statistical analysis are provided in association with the external factors and in the context of thousands of publicly available datasets arranged into thematic collections. The web-service is available at https://biota.knomics.ru. Conclusions Knomics-Biota web service is a comprehensive tool for interactive metagenomic data analysis
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