5,698 research outputs found

    Ultrasonic evaluation of high voltage circuit boards

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    Preliminary observations indicate that an ultrasonic scanning technique may be useful as a quick, low cost, nondestructive method for judging the quality of circuit board materials for high voltage applications. Corona inception voltage tests were conducted on fiberglass-epoxy and fiberglass-polyimide high pressure laminates from 20 to 140 C. The same materials were scanned ultrasonically by utilizing the single transducer, through-transmission technique with reflector plate, and recording variations in ultrasonic energy transmitted through the board thickness. A direct relationship was observed between ultrasonic transmission level and corona inception voltage. The ultrasonic technique was subsequently used to aid selection of high quality circuit boards for the Communications Technology Satellite

    NDE of structural ceramics

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    Radiographic, ultrasonic, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), and thermo-acoustic microscopy techniques were used to characterize silicon nitride and silicon carbide modulus-of-rupture test specimens in various stages of fabrication. Conventional and microfocus X-ray techniques were found capable of detecting minute high density inclusions in as-received powders, green compacts, and fully densified specimens. Significant density gradients in sintered bars were observed by radiography, ultrasonic velocity, and SLAM. Ultrasonic attenuation was found sensitive to microstructural variations due to grain and void morphology and distribution. SLAM was also capable of detecting voids, inclusions and cracks in finished test bars. Consideration is given to the potential for applying thermo-acoustic microscopy techniques to green and densified ceramics. The detection probability statistics and some limitations of radiography and SLAM also are discussed

    Ultrasonic detection and measurement of fatigue cracks in notched specimens

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    Ultrasonic detection and measurement of fatigue crack propagation in notched specimens of aluminum, titanium, and cobalt alloys and maraging steel

    Nondestructive techniques for characterizing mechanical properties of structural materials: An overview

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    An overview of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is presented to indicate the availability and application potentials of techniques for quantitative characterization of the mechanical properties of structural materials. The purpose is to review NDE techniques that go beyond the usual emphasis on flaw detection and characterization. Discussed are current and emerging NDE techniques that can verify and monitor entrinsic properties (e.g., tensile, shear, and yield strengths; fracture toughness, hardness, ductility; elastic moduli) and underlying microstructural and morphological factors. Most of the techniques described are, at present, neither widely applied nor widely accepted in commerce and industry because they are still emerging from the laboratory. The limitations of the techniques may be overcome by advances in applications research and instrumentation technology and perhaps by accommodations for their use in the design of structural parts

    Fatigue cracks detected and measured without test interruption

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    Ultrasonic flaw detector records cracks in materials undergoing fatigue tests, without interfering with test progress. The detector contains modified transducers clamped to the specimens, and an oscillograph readout

    Ultrasonic characterization of structural ceramics

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    Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements were used to characterize density and microstructure in monolithic silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Research samples of these structural ceramics exhibited a wide range of density and microstructural variations. It was shown that bulk density variations correlate with and can be estimated by velocity measurements. Variations in microstructural features such as grain size or shape and pore morphology had a minor effect on velocity. However, these features had a pronounced effect on ultrasonic attenuation. The ultrasonic results are supplemented by low-energy radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy

    Monitoring crack extension in fracture toughness tests by ultrasonics

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    An ultrasonic method was used to observe the onset of crack extension and to monitor continued crack growth in fracture toughness specimens during three point bend tests. A 20 MHz transducer was used with commercially available equipment to detect average crack extension less than 0.09 mm. The material tested was a 300-grade maraging steel in the annealed condition. A crack extension resistance curve was developed to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasonic method for minimizing the number of tests required to generate such curves

    Reliability of void detection in structural ceramics using scanning laser acoustic microscopy

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    The reliability of scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) for detecting surface voids in structural ceramic test specimens was statistically evaluated. Specimens of sintered silicon nitride and sintered silicon carbide, seeded with surface voids, were examined by SLAM at an ultrasonic frequency of 100 MHz in the as fired condition and after surface polishing. It was observed that polishing substantially increased void detectability. Voids as small as 100 micrometers in diameter were detected in polished specimens with 0.90 probability at a 0.95 confidence level. In addition, inspection times were reduced up to a factor of 10 after polishing. The applicability of the SLAM technique for detection of naturally occurring flaws of similar dimensions to the seeded voids is discussed. A FORTRAN program listing is given for calculating and plotting flaw detection statistics

    Investigation of a SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb composite

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    A summary of ongoing research on the characterization of a continuous fiber reinforced SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb (at percent) composite is presented. The powder metallurgy fabrication technique is described as are the nondestructive evaluation results of the as-fabricated composite plates. Tensile properties of the SiC fiber, the matrix material, and the 0-deg SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb composite (fibers oriented unidirectionally, parallel to the loading axis) from room temperature to 1100 C are presented and discussed with regard to the resultant fractography. The as-fabricated fiber-matrix interface has been examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy and the compounds present in the reaction zone have been identified. Fiber-matrix interaction and stability of the matrix near the fiber is characterized at 815, 985, and 1200 C from 1 to 500 hr. Measurements of the fiber-matrix reaction, the loss of C-rich coating from the surface of the SiC fiber, and the growth of the Beta depleted zone in the matrix adjacent to the fiber are presented. These data and the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the fiber and the matrix are discussed in terms of their likely effects on mechanical properties

    Evaluation of solar cell welds by scanning acoustic microscopy

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    Scanning laser acoustic microscopy was used to nondestructively evaluate solar cell interconnect bonds made by resistance welding. Both copper-silver and silver-silver welds were analyzed. The bonds were produced either by a conventional parallel-gap welding technique using rectangular electrodes or new annular gap design with a circular electrode cross section. With the scanning laser acoustic microscope, it was possible to produce a real time television image which reveales the weld configuration as it relates to electrode geometry. The effect of electrode misalinement with the surface of the cell was also determined. A preliminary metallographic analysis was performed on selected welds to establish the relationship between actual size and shape of the weld area and the information available from acoustic micrographs
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