2,836 research outputs found

    Optimal location of consumer facilities within a city

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    The Impact of Trade Barriers on Mandated Biofuel Consumption in Canada

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    In 2008 the Canadian government passed amendments to the Environmental Protection Act requiring five percent ethanol in transportation fuels sold in Canada by 2010 and two percent renewable content in diesel and heating fuels by 2012. Agricultural commodity and other groups have lobbied for further marketplace intervention that would ensure the biofuel needed to meet the legislated requirement be produced from domestic sources. Indeed, many of these special interests would like the biofuels content increased from five to ten percent and for the increase to be met by domestic firms only. The objective of this study is to compare the relative economic impacts in Canada of achieving a ten percent biofuel content either through increased imports or by substituting domestic production in place of increased imports.biofuel trade policy ethanol canada, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade,

    The Impact of Trade Barriers on Mandated Biofuel Consumption in Canada

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    biofuel ethanol trade Canada, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade,

    Invazivno liječenje simptomatske stenoze karotidne arterije - trenutno stanje karotidne endarterektomije i karotidne angioplastike

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    In this paper we present carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) as a relatively new endovascular treatment for carotid stenosis. It has become an established alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for high-risk patients not eligible for surgery. After presenting data on CEA and CAS and studies comparing CEA and CAS, our results comparing the outcome of patients after CAS and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) are presented. Until December 2004, 183 patients with carotid artery desease (37% of asymptomatic and 63% of symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis), mean age 68 years, were followed up for 133 days. During the first 24 hours of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting (stent-PTA), 4 (2.2%) patients had transient ishemic attack (TIA) and 3 (1.5%) patients suffered stroke, and within 30 days post-intervention, another patient presented with TIA and another 2 patients had stroke. Overall 12 of 183 patients (6.6%) had cerebrovascular event (6 TIA and 6 stroke) during the 6-month follow up period. Clinical prognosis of this cohort treated with stent-PTA is comparable with data published in the literature.U ovom radu predstavlja se karotidna angioplastika sa stentiranjem (CAS) kao relativno nov postupak u liječenju karotidne stenoze koji moĆŸe biti zamjena za karotidnu endarterektomiju (CEA) kod bolesnika s visokim rizikom koji nisu pogodni za operacijsko liječenje. Nakon prikaza podataka i studija o karotidnoj angioplastici i karotidnoj endarterektomiji prikazuju se vlastiti rezultati usporedbe i ishoda kod bolesnika liječenih karotidnom angioplastikom i karotidnom endarterektomijom. Do prosinca 2004. godine u studiju je uključeno 183 bolesnika sa stenozom karotidne arterije (37% asimptomatskih i 63% simptomatskih stenoza unutarnje karotidne arterije), prosječne dobi 68 (raspon 20-84) godina, od kojih su 64% bolesnika bili muĆĄkarci. Prosječno vrijeme praćenja bolesnika bilo je 133 dana. Tijekom prva 24 sata nakon izvođenja karotidne angioplastike 4 (2,2%) bolesnika je zadobilo TIA, a 3 (1,5%) bolesnika moĆŸdani udar. Nakon 30 dana joĆĄ jedan bolesnik je zadobio tranzitornu ishemijsku ataku (TIA), a 2 bolesnika moĆŸdani udar. Ukupno je nakon 6 mjeseci 12 od 183 (6,6%) bolesnika imalo cerebrovaskularnu bolest (6 TIA i 6 moĆŸdani udar). Ishod bolesnika u ovoj studiji je usporediv s dosadaĆĄnjim rezultatima objavljenim u literaturi

    Critical Dynamics of Gelation

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    Shear relaxation and dynamic density fluctuations are studied within a Rouse model, generalized to include the effects of permanent random crosslinks. We derive an exact correspondence between the static shear viscosity and the resistance of a random resistor network. This relation allows us to compute the static shear viscosity exactly for uncorrelated crosslinks. For more general percolation models, which are amenable to a scaling description, it yields the scaling relation k=ϕ−ÎČ k=\phi-\beta for the critical exponent of the shear viscosity. Here ÎČ\beta is the thermal exponent for the gel fraction and ϕ\phi is the crossover exponent of the resistor network. The results on the shear viscosity are also used in deriving upper and lower bounds on the incoherent scattering function in the long-time limit, thereby corroborating previous results.Comment: 34 pages, 2 figures (revtex, amssymb); revised version (minor changes

    Proteomics as a quality control tool of pharmaceutical probiotic bacterial lysate products

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    Probiotic bacteria have a wide range of applications in veterinary and human therapeutics. Inactivated probiotics are complex samples and quality control (QC) should measure as many molecular features as possible. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE/MS) has been used as a multidimensional and high throughput method for the identification and validation of biomarkers of disease in complex biological samples such as biofluids. In this study we evaluate the suitability of CE/MS to measure the consistency of different lots of the probiotic formulation Pro-Symbioflor which is a bacterial lysate of heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Over 5000 peptides were detected by CE/MS in 5 different lots of the bacterial lysate and in a sample of culture medium. 71 to 75% of the total peptide content was identical in all lots. This percentage increased to 87–89% when allowing the absence of a peptide in one of the 5 samples. These results, based on over 2000 peptides, suggest high similarity of the 5 different lots. Sequence analysis identified peptides of both E. coli and E. faecalis and peptides originating from the culture medium, thus confirming the presence of the strains in the formulation. Ontology analysis suggested that the majority of the peptides identified for E. coli originated from the cell membrane or the fimbrium, while peptides identified for E. faecalis were enriched for peptides originating from the cytoplasm. The bacterial lysate peptides as a whole are recognised as highly conserved molecular patterns by the innate immune system as microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP). Sequence analysis also identified the presence of soybean, yeast and casein protein fragments that are part of the formulation of the culture medium. In conclusion CE/MS seems an appropriate QC tool to analyze complex biological products such as inactivated probiotic formulations and allows determining the similarity between lots

    Acceleration of Relativistic Protons during the 20 January 2005 Flare and CME

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    The origin of relativistic solar protons during large flare/CME events has not been uniquely identified so far.We perform a detailed comparative analysis of the time profiles of relativistic protons detected by the worldwide network of neutron monitors at Earth with electromagnetic signatures of particle acceleration in the solar corona during the large particle event of 20 January 2005. The intensity-time profile of the relativistic protons derived from the neutron monitor data indicates two successive peaks. We show that microwave, hard X-ray and gamma-ray emissions display several episodes of particle acceleration within the impulsive flare phase. The first relativistic protons detected at Earth are accelerated together with relativistic electrons and with protons that produce pion decay gamma-rays during the second episode. The second peak in the relativistic proton profile at Earth is accompanied by new signatures of particle acceleration in the corona within approximatively 1 solar radius above the photosphere, revealed by hard X-ray and microwave emissions of low intensity, and by the renewed radio emission of electron beams and of a coronal shock wave. We discuss the observations in terms of different scenarios of particle acceleration in the corona.Comment: 22 pages, 5 figure

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    A search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu decay channel, where l = e or mu, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data were collected at the LHC, with the CMS detector, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 inverse femtobarns. No significant excess is observed above the background expectation, and upper limits are set on the Higgs boson production cross section. The presence of the standard model Higgs boson with a mass in the 270-440 GeV range is excluded at 95% confidence level.Comment: Submitted to JHE

    Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation