243 research outputs found

    Polymorphism of the glass former ethanol confined in mesoporous silicon

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    X-ray diffraction patterns of ethanol confined in parallel-aligned channels of approx. 10 nm diameter and 50 micrometer length in mesoporous silicon have been recorded as a function of filling fraction, temperature and for varying cooling and heating rates. A sorption isotherm, recorded in the liquid state, indicates a three monolayer thick, strongly adsorbed wall layer and a capillary condensed fraction of molecules in the pore center. Though the strongly adsorbed film remains in an amorphous state for the entire temperature range investigated, the capillary condensed molecules reproduce the polymorphism of bulk solid ethanol, that is the formation of either crystalline or glass-like states as a function of cooling rate. The critical rate necessary to achieve a vitrification in the mesopores is, however, at least two orders of magnitude smaller than in the bulk state. This finding can be traced both to pure geometrical constraints and quenched disorder effects, characteristic of confinement in mesoporous silicon.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Crystallization of medium length 1-alcohols in mesoporous silicon: An X-ray diffraction study

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    The linear 1-alcohols n-C16H33OH, n-C17H35OH, n-C19H37OH have been imbibed and solidified in lined up, tubular mesopores of silicon with 10 nm and 15 nm mean diameters, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal a set of six discrete orientation states (''domains'') characterized by a perpendicular alignment of the molecules with respect to the long axis of the pores and by a four-fold symmetry about this direction, which coincides with the crystalline symmetry of the Si host. A Bragg peak series characteristic of the formation of bilayers indicates a lamellar structure of the spatially confined alcohol crystals in 15 nm pores. By contrast, no layering reflections could be detected for 10 nm pores. The growth mechanism responsible for the peculiar orientation states is attributed to a nano-scale version of the Bridgman technique of single-crystal growth, where the dominant growth direction is aligned parallelly to the long pore axes. Our observations are analogous to the growth phenomenology encountered for medium length n-alkanes confined in mesoporous silicon (Phys. Rev. E 75, 021607 (2007)) and may further elucidate why porous silicon matrices act as an effective nucleation-inducing material for protein solution crystallization.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, to appear as a Brief Report in Physical Review

    THE PROBLEM OF INTERNATIONAL CARTELS AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMODITY AGREEMENTS

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    The crisis in U.S. defense

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    https://stars.library.ucf.edu/prism/1603/thumbnail.jp
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