59 research outputs found

    Universal Entanglers for Bosonic and Fermionic Systems

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    A universal entangler (UE) is a unitary operation which maps all pure product states to entangled states. It is known that for a bipartite system of particles 1,21,2 with a Hilbert space Cd1Cd2\mathbb{C}^{d_1}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d_2}, a UE exists when min(d1,d2)3\min{(d_1,d_2)}\geq 3 and (d1,d2)(3,3)(d_1,d_2)\neq (3,3). It is also known that whenever a UE exists, almost all unitaries are UEs; however to verify whether a given unitary is a UE is very difficult since solving a quadratic system of equations is NP-hard in general. This work examines the existence and construction of UEs of bipartite bosonic/fermionic systems whose wave functions sit in the symmetric/antisymmetric subspace of CdCd\mathbb{C}^{d}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d}. The development of a theory of UEs for these types of systems needs considerably different approaches from that used for UEs of distinguishable systems. This is because the general entanglement of identical particle systems cannot be discussed in the usual way due to the effect of (anti)-symmetrization which introduces "pseudo entanglement" that is inaccessible in practice. We show that, unlike the distinguishable particle case, UEs exist for bosonic/fermionic systems with Hilbert spaces which are symmetric (resp. antisymmetric) subspaces of CdCd\mathbb{C}^{d}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d} if and only if d3d\geq 3 (resp. d8d\geq 8). To prove this we employ algebraic geometry to reason about the different algebraic structures of the bosonic/fermionic systems. Additionally, due to the relatively simple coherent state form of unentangled bosonic states, we are able to give the explicit constructions of two bosonic UEs. Our investigation provides insight into the entanglement properties of systems of indisitinguishable particles, and in particular underscores the difference between the entanglement structures of bosonic, fermionic and distinguishable particle systems.Comment: 15 pages, comments welcome, TQC2013 Accepted Tal

    Topological degeneracy (Majorana zero-mode) and 1+1D fermionic topological order in a magnetic chain on superconductor via spontaneous Z2 symmetry breaking

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    We study a chain of ferromagnetic nano-particles or ferromagnetic molecule/atoms on a substrate of fully gapped superconductors. We find that under quite realistic conditions, the fermion-number-parity symmetry Z2fZ_2^f can spontaneously break. In other words, such a chain can realize a 1+1D fermionic topologically ordered state and the corresponding two-fold topological degeneracy on an open chain. Such a topological degeneracy becomes the so called Majorana zero mode in the non-interacting limit. More specifically, we find that Z2fZ_2^f symmetry breaking or fermionic 1+1D topological order can appear if (1) the electron hopping tijt_{ij} between nano-particles is larger than the energy splitting δEeo\delta E_{eo} between the ground states of even and odd electrons on a nano-particle, (2) the Josephson coupling JiJ_i between the superconducting substrate and the nano-particle is larger than or similar to δEeo\delta E_{eo}, and (3) the electron hopping amplitude tijt_{ij} is complex, or more precisely, the phase of gauge invariant combination Jitij2JjJ_i t_{ij}^2 J_j^* is not zero.Comment: 5 pages, 8 figure

    Autonomic Dysregulation in Adolescent Concussion Is Sex- and Posture-Dependent

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    Objective: To study autonomic responses to postural changes in concussed adolescents. The influence of sex was also studied. Design: Longitudinal cohort observational study. Participants: Concussed adolescents (CONC; n = 65; 26 male adolescents; age 15 ± 1 years, range = 12-18 years) and a control (CTRL) group of nonconcussed adolescents of similar age and sport (CTRL; n = 54; 29 male adolescents; age 14 ± 1 years, range = 12-18 years). Interventions: Concussed participants were monitored through 6 weekly visits throughout usual physician care. Control participants underwent 2 visits separated by at least 1 week to account for intrapersonal variation in testing measures. Main Outcome Measures: Heart rate variability as the root mean square of successive differences in R–R intervals (RMSSD), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)] were measured in supine, sitting, and standing postures. Results: A mixed analysis of variance revealed a group 3 sex 3 posture interaction (P = 0.04) where seated values of RMSSD were less in concussed female participants versus control female participants (42 ± 4 vs 61 ± 7 ms; P = 0.01; Mann–Whitney rank test). Compared with CTRL, CONC exhibited increased pretesting seated DBP (69 ± 1 vs 74 ± 1 mm Hg; P\u3c 0.01), MAP (83 ± 1 vs 86 ± 1 mm Hg; P = 0.02), and baseline seated HR (72 ± 1 vs 77 ± 2 bpm; P = 0.03). Values of DBP (P = 0.03) and MAP (P, 0.01) improved at clinical discharge, whereas the RMSSD in female participants did not (P \u3e 0.5). Data are mean ± SEM. Conclusions: A modest reduction in female cardiac autonomic regulation was observed during seated postures. Alterations in seated concussed DBP and MAP, but not RMSSD, resolved at clinical discharge (median = 37 days). The results indicate that, in adolescents, concussion may impair cardiovagal function in a sex- and posture-dependent manner. The findings also suggest that BP metrics, but not RMSSD, are associated with clinical concussion recovery

    Autonomic Dysregulation in Adolescent Concussion Is Sex- and Posture-Dependent

    Get PDF
    Objective: To study autonomic responses to postural changes in concussed adolescents. The influence of sex was also studied. Design: Longitudinal cohort observational study. Participants: Concussed adolescents (CONC; n = 65; 26 male adolescents; age 15 ± 1 years, range = 12-18 years) and a control (CTRL) group of nonconcussed adolescents of similar age and sport (CTRL; n = 54; 29 male adolescents; age 14 ± 1 years, range = 12-18 years). Interventions: Concussed participants were monitored through 6 weekly visits throughout usual physician care. Control participants underwent 2 visits separated by at least 1 week to account for intrapersonal variation in testing measures. Main Outcome Measures: Heart rate variability as the root mean square of successive differences in R–R intervals (RMSSD), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)] were measured in supine, sitting, and standing postures. Results: A mixed analysis of variance revealed a group 3 sex 3 posture interaction (P = 0.04) where seated values of RMSSD were less in concussed female participants versus control female participants (42 ± 4 vs 61 ± 7 ms; P = 0.01; Mann–Whitney rank test). Compared with CTRL, CONC exhibited increased pretesting seated DBP (69 ± 1 vs 74 ± 1 mm Hg; P\u3c 0.01), MAP (83 ± 1 vs 86 ± 1 mm Hg; P = 0.02), and baseline seated HR (72 ± 1 vs 77 ± 2 bpm; P = 0.03). Values of DBP (P = 0.03) and MAP (P, 0.01) improved at clinical discharge, whereas the RMSSD in female participants did not (P \u3e 0.5). Data are mean ± SEM. Conclusions: A modest reduction in female cardiac autonomic regulation was observed during seated postures. Alterations in seated concussed DBP and MAP, but not RMSSD, resolved at clinical discharge (median = 37 days). The results indicate that, in adolescents, concussion may impair cardiovagal function in a sex- and posture-dependent manner. The findings also suggest that BP metrics, but not RMSSD, are associated with clinical concussion recovery

    P. aeruginosa SGNH Hydrolase-Like Proteins AlgJ and AlgX Have Similar Topology but Separate and Distinct Roles in Alginate Acetylation

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    The O-acetylation of polysaccharides is a common modification used by pathogenic organisms to protect against external forces. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the anionic, O-acetylated exopolysaccharide alginate during chronic infection in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients to form the major constituent of a protective biofilm matrix. Four proteins have been implicated in the O-acetylation of alginate, AlgIJF and AlgX. To probe the biological function of AlgJ, we determined its structure to 1.83 Å resolution. AlgJ is a SGNH hydrolase-like protein, which while structurally similar to the N-terminal domain of AlgX exhibits a distinctly different electrostatic surface potential. Consistent with other SGNH hydrolases, we identified a conserved catalytic triad composed of D190, H192 and S288 and demonstrated that AlgJ exhibits acetylesterase activity in vitro. Residues in the AlgJ signature motifs were found to form an extensive network of interactions that are critical for O-acetylation of alginate in vivo. Using two different electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) assays we compared the abilities of AlgJ and AlgX to bind and acetylate alginate. Binding studies using defined length polymannuronic acid revealed that AlgJ exhibits either weak or no detectable polymer binding while AlgX binds polymannuronic acid specifically in a length-dependent manner. Additionally, AlgX was capable of utilizing the surrogate acetyl-donor 4-nitrophenyl acetate to catalyze the O-acetylation of polymannuronic acid. Our results, combined with previously published in vivo data, suggest that the annotated O-acetyltransferases AlgJ and AlgX have separate and distinct roles in O-acetylation. Our refined model for alginate acetylation places AlgX as the terminal acetlytransferase and provides a rationale for the variability in the number of proteins required for polysaccharide O-acetylation

    <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> AlgF is a protein-protein interaction mediator required for acetylation of the alginate exopolysaccharide

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    Enzymatic modifications of bacterial exopolysaccharides enhance immune evasion and persistence during infection. In the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, acetylation of alginate reduces opsonic killing by phagocytes and improves reactive oxygen species scavenging. Although it is well-known that alginate acetylation in P. aeruginosa requires AlgI, AlgJ, AlgF, and AlgX, how these proteins coordinate polymer modification at a molecular level remains unclear. Here, we describe the structural characterization of AlgF and its protein interaction network. We characterize direct interactions between AlgF and both AlgJ and AlgX in vitro, and demonstrate an association between AlgF and AlgX, as well as AlgJ and AlgI, in P. aeruginosa. We determine that AlgF does not exhibit acetylesterase activity and is unable to bind to polymannuronate in vitro. Therefore, we propose that AlgF functions to mediate protein-protein interactions between alginate acetylation enzymes, forming the periplasmic AlgJFXK (AlgJ-AlgF-AlgX-AlgK) acetylation and export complex required for robust biofilm formation.</p
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