777 research outputs found

### Modeling of the Super-Eddington Phase for Classical Novae: Five IUE Novae

We present a light curve model for the super-Eddington luminosity phase of
five classical novae observed with IUE. Optical and UV light curves are
calculated based on the optically thick wind theory with a reduced effective
opacity for a porous atmosphere. Fitting a model light curve with the UV 1455
\AA light curve, we determine the white dwarf mass and distance to be (1.3
M_sun, 4.4 kpc) for V693 CrA, (1.05 M_sun, 1.8 kpc) for V1974 Cyg, (0.95 M_sun,
4.1 kpc) for V1668 Cyg, (1.0 M_sun, 2.1 kpc) for V351 Pup, and (1.0 M_sun, 4.3
kpc) for OS And.Comment: 9 pages including 8 figures, to appear in the Astrophysical Journa

### 9286 Stars: An Agglomeration of Stellar Polarization Catalogs

This is a revision. The revisions are minor. The new version of the catalog
should be used in preference to the old. The most serious error in the older
version was that $\theta_diff$ was incorrect, being sometimes far too large,
for Reiz and Franco entries; the correct values are all zero for that
reference.
We present an agglomeration of stellar polarization catalogs with results for
9286 stars. We have endeavored to eliminate errors, provide accurate
(arcsecond) positions, sensibly weight multiple observations of the same star,
and provide reasonable distances. This catalog is included as an ASCII file
(catalog.txt) in the source of this submission.Comment: The most serious error in the older version was that $\theta_diff$
was incorrect, being sometimes far too large, for Reiz and Franco entries;
the correct values are all zero for that reference. 11 pages, no figures.
Accepted for Astronomical Journal. Catalog also available as an ASCII file by
anonymous FTP from ftp://vermi.berkeley.edu/pub/polcat/p14.ou

### IS element IS16 as a molecular screening tool to identify hospital-associated strains of Enterococcus faecium

<p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Hospital strains of <it>Enterococcus faecium </it>could be characterized and typed by various molecular methods (MLST, AFLP, MLVA) and allocated to a distinct clonal complex known as MLST CC17. However, these techniques are laborious, time-consuming and cost-intensive. Our aim was to identify hospital <it>E. faecium </it>strains and differentiate them from colonizing and animal variants by a simple, inexpensive and reliable PCR-based screening assay. We describe here performance and predictive value of a single PCR detecting the insertion element, IS<it>16</it>, to identify hospital <it>E. faecium </it>isolates within a collection of 260 strains of hospital, animal and human commensal origins.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Specific primers were selected amplifying a 547-bp fragment of IS<it>16</it>. Presence of IS<it>16 </it>was determined by PCR screenings among the 260 <it>E. faecium </it>isolates. Distribution of IS<it>16 </it>was compared with a prevalence of commonly used markers for hospital strains, <it>esp </it>and <it>hyl</it><sub><it>Efm</it></sub>. All isolates were typed by MLST and partly by PFGE. Location of IS<it>16 </it>was analysed by Southern hybridization of plasmid and chromosomal DNA.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>IS<it>16 </it>was exclusively distributed only among 155 invasive strains belonging to the clonal complex of hospital-associated strains ("CC17"; 28 MLST types) and various vancomycin resistance genotypes (<it>van</it>A/B/negative). The five invasive IS<it>16</it>-negative strains did not belong to the clonal complex of hospital-associated strains (CC17). IS<it>16 </it>was absent in all but three isolates from 100 livestock, food-associated and human commensal strains ("non-CC17"; 64 MLST types). The three IS<it>16</it>-positive human commensal isolates revealed MLST types belonging to the clonal complex of hospital-associated strains (CC17). The values predicting a hospital-associated strain ("CC17") deduced from presence and absence of IS<it>16 </it>was 100% and thus superior to screening for the presence of <it>esp </it>(66%) and/or <it>hyl</it><sub><it>Efm </it></sub>(46%). Southern hybridizations revealed chromosomal as well as plasmid localization of IS<it>16</it>.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This simple screening assay for insertion element IS<it>16 </it>is capable of differentiating hospital-associated from human commensal, livestock- and food-associated <it>E. faecium </it>strains and thus allows predicting the epidemic strengths or supposed pathogenic potential of a given <it>E. faecium </it>isolate identified within the nosocomial setting.</p

### IS element IS16 as a molecular screening tool to identify hospital-associated strains of Enterococcus faecium

<p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Hospital strains of <it>Enterococcus faecium </it>could be characterized and typed by various molecular methods (MLST, AFLP, MLVA) and allocated to a distinct clonal complex known as MLST CC17. However, these techniques are laborious, time-consuming and cost-intensive. Our aim was to identify hospital <it>E. faecium </it>strains and differentiate them from colonizing and animal variants by a simple, inexpensive and reliable PCR-based screening assay. We describe here performance and predictive value of a single PCR detecting the insertion element, IS<it>16</it>, to identify hospital <it>E. faecium </it>isolates within a collection of 260 strains of hospital, animal and human commensal origins.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Specific primers were selected amplifying a 547-bp fragment of IS<it>16</it>. Presence of IS<it>16 </it>was determined by PCR screenings among the 260 <it>E. faecium </it>isolates. Distribution of IS<it>16 </it>was compared with a prevalence of commonly used markers for hospital strains, <it>esp </it>and <it>hyl</it><sub><it>Efm</it></sub>. All isolates were typed by MLST and partly by PFGE. Location of IS<it>16 </it>was analysed by Southern hybridization of plasmid and chromosomal DNA.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>IS<it>16 </it>was exclusively distributed only among 155 invasive strains belonging to the clonal complex of hospital-associated strains ("CC17"; 28 MLST types) and various vancomycin resistance genotypes (<it>van</it>A/B/negative). The five invasive IS<it>16</it>-negative strains did not belong to the clonal complex of hospital-associated strains (CC17). IS<it>16 </it>was absent in all but three isolates from 100 livestock, food-associated and human commensal strains ("non-CC17"; 64 MLST types). The three IS<it>16</it>-positive human commensal isolates revealed MLST types belonging to the clonal complex of hospital-associated strains (CC17). The values predicting a hospital-associated strain ("CC17") deduced from presence and absence of IS<it>16 </it>was 100% and thus superior to screening for the presence of <it>esp </it>(66%) and/or <it>hyl</it><sub><it>Efm </it></sub>(46%). Southern hybridizations revealed chromosomal as well as plasmid localization of IS<it>16</it>.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This simple screening assay for insertion element IS<it>16 </it>is capable of differentiating hospital-associated from human commensal, livestock- and food-associated <it>E. faecium </it>strains and thus allows predicting the epidemic strengths or supposed pathogenic potential of a given <it>E. faecium </it>isolate identified within the nosocomial setting.</p

### Dynamics of Line-Driven Winds from Disks in Cataclysmic Variables. I. Solution Topology and Wind Geometry

We analyze the dynamics of 2-D stationary, line-driven winds from accretion
disks in cataclysmic variable stars. The driving force is that of line
radiation pressure, in the formalism developed by Castor, Abbott & Klein for O
stars. Our main assumption is that wind helical streamlines lie on straight
cones. We find that the Euler equation for the disk wind has two eigenvalues,
the mass loss rate and the flow tilt angle with the disk. Both are calculated
self-consistently. The wind is characterized by two distinct regions, an outer
wind launched beyond four white dwarf radii from the rotation axis, and an
inner wind launched within this radius. The inner wind is very steep, up to 80
degrees with the disk plane, while the outer wind has a typical tilt of 60
degrees. In both cases the ray dispersion is small. We, therefore, confirm the
bi-conical geometry of disk winds as suggested by observations and kinematical
modeling. The wind collimation angle appears to be robust and depends only on
the disk temperature stratification. The flow critical points lie high above
the disk for the inner wind, but close to the disk photosphere for the outer
wind. Comparison with existing kinematical and dynamical models is provided.
Mass loss rates from the disk as well as wind velocity laws are discussed in a
subsequent paper.Comment: 21 pages, 10 Postscript figures; available also from
http://www.pa.uky.edu/~shlosman/publ.html. Astrophysical Journal, submitte

### de Sitter Supersymmetry Revisited

We present the basic $\mathcal{N} =1$ superconformal field theories in
four-dimensional de Sitter space-time, namely the non-abelian super Yang-Mills
theory and the chiral multiplet theory with gauge interactions or cubic
superpotential. These theories have eight supercharges and are invariant under
the full $SO(4,2)$ group of conformal symmetries, which includes the de Sitter
isometry group $SO(4,1)$ as a subgroup. The theories are ghost-free and the
anti-commutator $\sum_\alpha\{Q_\alpha, Q^{\alpha\dagger}\}$ is positive. SUSY
Ward identities uniquely select the Bunch-Davies vacuum state. This vacuum
state is invariant under superconformal transformations, despite the fact that
de Sitter space has non-zero Hawking temperature. The $\mathcal{N}=1$ theories
are classically invariant under the $SU(2,2|1)$ superconformal group, but this
symmetry is broken by radiative corrections. However, no such difficulty is
expected in the $\mathcal{N}=4$ theory, which is presented in appendix B.Comment: 21 pages, 2 figure

### All solutions of the localization equations for N=2 quantum black hole entropy

We find the most general bosonic solution to the localization equations
describing the contributions to the quantum entropy of supersymmetric black
holes in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity coupled to n_v vector multiplets.
This requires the analysis of the BPS equations of the corresponding off-shell
supergravity (including fluctuations of the auxiliary fields) with AdS2 \times
S2 attractor boundary conditions. Our work completes and extends the results of
arXiv:1012.0265 that were obtained for the vector multiplet sector, to include
the fluctuations of all the fields of the off-shell supergravity. We find that,
when the auxiliary SU(2) gauge field strength vanishes, the most general
supersymmetric configuration preserving four supercharges is labelled by n_v+1
real parameters corresponding to the excitations of the conformal mode of the
graviton and the scalars of the n_v vector multiplets. In the general case, the
localization manifold is labelled by an additional SU(2) triplet of one-forms
and a scalar function.Comment: 27 page

### An investigation of the impact of data breach severity on the readability of mandatory data breach notification letters: evidence from U.S. firms

The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of data breach severity on the readability of mandatory data breach notification letters. Using a content analysis approach to determine data breach severity attributes (measured by the total number of breached records, type of data accessed, the source of the data breach, and how the data were used), in conjunction with readability measures (reading complexity, numerical intensity, length of letter, word size, and unique words), 512 data breach incidents from 281 U.S. firms across the 2012â2015 period were examined.
The results indicate that data breach severity has a positive impact on reading complexity, length of letter, word size, and unique words, and a negative impact on numerical terms. Interpreting the results collectively through the lens of impression management, it can be inferred that business managers may be attempting to obfuscate bad news associated with high data breach severity incidents by manipulating syntactical features of the data breach notification letters in a way that makes the message difficult for individuals to comprehend.
The study contributes to the information studies and impression management behavior literatures by analyzing linguistic cues in notifications following a data breach incident

### Exploring Curved Superspace

We systematically analyze Riemannian manifolds M that admit rigid
supersymmetry, focusing on four-dimensional N=1 theories with a U(1)_R
symmetry. We find that M admits a single supercharge, if and only if it is a
Hermitian manifold. The supercharge transforms as a scalar on M. We then
consider the restrictions imposed by the presence of additional supercharges.
Two supercharges of opposite R-charge exist on certain fibrations of a
two-torus over a Riemann surface. Upon dimensional reduction, these give rise
to an interesting class of supersymmetric geometries in three dimensions. We
further show that compact manifolds admitting two supercharges of equal
R-charge must be hyperhermitian. Finally, four supercharges imply that M is
locally isometric to M_3 x R, where M_3 is a maximally symmetric space.Comment: 39 pages; minor change

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