184 research outputs found

    The uniqueness of short-term collateralization

    Get PDF
    The author finds evidence that lines of credit secured by accounts receivable are associated with business borrowers with a high risk of default. While an unsecured short-term loan is repaid from the borrower's future cash flow, a loan secured by accounts receivable (a unique form of"inside"collateral) is repaid from previously generated and observed sales (the borrower's trade credit terms to its customers). Consequently, lenders that secure accounts receivable are most concerned with the credit risk of the borrower's customers and the borrower's ability to continue to generate new sales. A stylizedtheoretical model demonstrates that the value of a secured line-of-credit loan in minimizing contracting costs is associated with the borrower's business risk and the quality of the borrower's customers. Empirical tests on a sample of publicly traded U.S. manufacturing firms find that firms with secured line of credit loans are observably riskier and have fewer expected growth opportunities. The author's findings suggest that observably riskier borrowers can borrow more on a secured than on an unsecured basis. The results highlight the important role of secured letters of credit in providing liquidity to risky, credit-constrained firms that might not have access to external financing through other channels.Banks&Banking Reform,Economic Adjustment and Lending,Economic Theory&Research,International Terrorism&Counterterrorism,Business in Development

    The impact of the financial crisis on new firm registration

    Get PDF
    The authors use panel data on the number of new firm registrations in 95 countries to study the impact of the business environment and 2008 financial crisis on new firm registration. The data show that more dynamic formal business creation occurs in countries that provide entrepreneurswith a stable legal and regulatory regime, fast and inexpensive business registration process, more flexible employment regulations, and low corporate taxes. The data also show that nearly all countries experienced a sharp drop in business entry during the crisis. This drop is more pronounced in countries with higher levels of financial development and countries more affected by the crisis.Governance Indicators,E-Business,Emerging Markets,Environmental Economics&Policies,Economic Theory&Research

    Taxation and capital structure : evidence from a transition economy

    Get PDF
    The authors examine the effects of taxation on financing policy using the corporate tax reform in 2001 in Croatia as a natural experiment. Since the extant literature on tax effects on capital structure studies listed firms in developed countries, it is worth investigating whether the same results apply to privately-held, small and medium size firms in transition economies. The findings provide significant evidence that lower taxes have affected the capital structure of Croatian firms, resulting in increased equity levels and decreased long-term debt levels. The authors also find that smaller and more profitable firms weremore likely to reduce their debt levels. These findings are consistent with the trade-off theory of capital structure, which suggests that lower taxes decrease the incentive to hold debt due to decreasing interest tax deductibility.Debt Markets,Taxation&Subsidies,Emerging Markets,Banks&Banking Reform,Access to Finance

    Patterns of business creation, survival and growth : evidence from Africa

    Get PDF
    The authors study firm dynamics using a novel database of all formally registered firms in Cote d'Ivoire from 1977 to 1997, which account for about 60 percent of gross domestic product. First, they examine entry and exit patterns and the role of new and exiting firms versus incumbents in job creation and destruction. They find that while the rate of job creation at new firms is quiet high -- at 8 percent on average -- the number of jobs added by new firms is small in absolute terms. Next, they examine survival rates and find that the probability of survival increases monotonically with firm size, but manufacturing and foreign-owned firms face higher likelihoods of exit compared with service oriented and domestically owned firms. They find that higher growth of gross domestic product increases the probability of firm survival, but this is a broad impact with no firm size disproportionately affected. In robustness checks, they find that after 1987 size is no longer a significant determinant of firm survival for new entrants, suggesting that the operating environment for firms changed. Finally, they find that trade and fiscal reform episodes raised the probability of firm exit and attenuated the survival disadvantages faced by smaller firms, but exchange rate revaluation and pro-private sector reforms did not significantly lower the likelihood of exit.Microfinance,Environmental Economics&Policies,Labor Markets,Small Scale Enterprise,Economic Theory&Research

    Insolvency laws around the world - a statistical analysis and rules for their design

    Get PDF
    Insolvenzrecht, Welt, Konkurs, Bankruptcy law, World, Bankruptcy

    Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in View of a Growing Youth Demographic: The Russian Case

    Get PDF
    Our study contributes to the financial literacy literature by examining its association with retirement planning in an interesting and novel context, i.e. that of a country with a relatively old and rapidly ageing population, large regional disparities and a rapidly emerging financial market. Even though consumer borrowing is increasing very rapidly in Russia, we find that only 36.3% of respondents in our sample know about the working of interest compounding and only half can answer a simple question about inflation. In a country with pervasive public pension provision, we find that financial literacy is significantly and positively related to retirement planning using private pension funds and schemes. Residents in rural areas are much more reliant on the public provision and invest less in private schemes and savings. The results of our study have a clear policy implication; along with encouraging the availability of private retirement plans and financial products, efforts to improve financial literacy can be pivotal to the expansion in the use of such schemes

    Ownership structure and initial public offerings

    Get PDF
    The authors study the relationship between ownership structure, corporate governance, and the initial public offering (IPO) process. They examine equity ownership by different institutions, such as foreign and domestic financial institutions, banks with and without lending relationships, venture capitalists, and corporations prior to an IPO. The authors also analyze the relationship between ownership structure and corporate governance. They use a unique dataset of 152 Indian IPOs during the period 1999-2001 to analyze ownership of shares by main groups of shareholders. The authors find a relationship between ownership structure and firm-specific factors such as sales, leverage, and profitability, and IPO characteristics such as percentage of equity locked up, gross proceeds, and exchange of listing. There is also a strong relationship between ownership by different types of institutions. Ownership is also tied to bank lending relationships. Finally, the authors find strong relationships between ownership types and corporate governance. For example, firms with foreign investors are more likely to have an outside chief executive officer and offer an employee stock option plan.Economic Theory&Research,International Terrorism&Counterterrorism,Small Scale Enterprise,Financial Intermediation,Payment Systems&Infrastructure,International Terrorism&Counterterrorism,Economic Theory&Research,Financial Intermediation,Financial Crisis Management&Restructuring,Microfinance

    Corporate governance, investor protection, and performance in emerging markets

    Get PDF
    Recent research studying the link between law, and finance has concentrated on country-level investor protection measures, and focused on differences in legal systems across countries, and legal families. The authors extend this literature, and provide a study of firm-level corporate governance practices across emerging markets, and a greater understanding of the environments under which corporate governance matters more. Their empirical tests show that better corporate governance is highly correlated with better operating performance, and market valuation. More important, the authors provide evidence showing that firm-level corporate governance provisions, matter more in countries with weak legal environments. These results suggest that firms can partially compensate for ineffective laws, and enforcement by establishing good governance, and providing credible investor protection. The authors'tests also show that firm-level governance, and performance is lower in countries with weak legal environments, suggesting that improving the legal system, should remain a priority for policymakers.Financial Crisis Management&Restructuring,International Terrorism&Counterterrorism,Municipal Financial Management,Decentralization,Banks&Banking Reform,Governance Indicators,National Governance,Banks&Banking Reform,Financial Crisis Management&Restructuring,Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance

    Financial literacy and retirement planning : the Russian case

    Get PDF
    The authors examine the association of financial literacy with retirement planning in Russia, a country with a relatively old and rapidly aging population, large regional disparities, and a rapidly emerging financial market. They find that only 36.3 percent of respondents in the sample understand interest compounding and only half can answer a simple question about inflation. In a country with widespread public pension provisions, they find that financial literacy is significantly and positively related to retirement planning involving private pension funds and schemes. Thus, along with encouraging the availability of private retirement plans, efforts to improve financial literacy could be pivotal to the expansion of the use of such schemes.Financial Literacy,Pensions&Retirement Systems,Emerging Markets,Debt Markets,Gender and Law

    The role of factoring for financing small and medium enterprises

    Get PDF
    Around the world, factoring is a growing source of external financing for corporations and small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). What is unique about factoring is that the credit provided by a lender is explicitly linked to the value of a supplier's accounts receivable and not the supplier's overall creditworthiness. Therefore, factoring allows high-risk suppliers to transfer their credit risk to their high-quality buyers. Factoring may be particularly useful in countries with weak judicial enforcement and imperfect records of upholding seniority claims because receivables are sold, rather than collateralized, and factored receivables are not part of the estate of a bankrupt SME. Empirical tests find that factoring is larger in countries with greater economic development and growth and developed credit information bureaus. In addition, the author finds that creditor rights are not related to factoring. The author also discusses reverse factoring, which is a technology that can mitigate the problem of borrowers'informational opacity in business environments with weak information infrastructures if only receivables from high-quality buyers are factored. She illustrates the case of the Nafin reverse factoring program in Mexico and highlights how the use of electronic channels and a supportive legal and regulatory environment can cut costs and provide greater SME services in emerging markets.Banks&Banking Reform,Banking Law,Financial Intermediation,Environmental Economics&Policies,Economic Theory&Research
    corecore