41 research outputs found

    A Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer

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    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω\Omega under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, NIΩN\hbar \gg I\Omega (II is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and NN is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin NN\hbar maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of NN spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time tt of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t3/2t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.Comment: Main text: 6 pages, 2 figures; Supplementary material: 3 pages, 1 figur

    Frequency-scanning considerations in axionlike dark matter spin-precession experiments

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    Galactic dark matter may consist of axionlike particles (ALPs) that can be described as an "ultralight bosonic field" oscillating at the ALP Compton frequency. The ALP field can be searched for using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), where resonant precession of spins of a polarized sample can be sensitively detected. The ALP mass to which the experiment is sensitive is scanned by sweeping the bias magnetic field. The scanning either results in detection of ALP dark matter or rules out ALP dark matter with sufficiently strong couplings to nuclear spins over the range of ALP masses corresponding to the covered span of Larmor frequencies. In this work, scanning strategies are analyzed with the goal of optimizing the parameter-space coverage via a proper choice of experimental parameters (e.g., the effective transverse relaxation time)

    Controlling for Prior Attainment Reduces the Positive Influence that Single-Gender Classroom Initiatives Exert on High School Students’ Scholastic Achievements.

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    Research points to the positive impact that gender-segregated schooling and classroom initiatives exert on academic attainment. An evaluation of these studies which reveal positive effects highlights, however, that students are typically selectively assigned to single- or mixed-gender instructional settings, presenting a methodological confound. The current study controls for students’ prior attainment to appraise the efficacy of a single-gender classroom initiative implemented in a co-educational high school in the United Kingdom. Secondary data analysis (using archived data) was performed on 266 middle-ability, 11–12 year-old students’ standardized test scores in Languages (English, foreign language), STEM-related (Mathematics, Science, Information and Communication Technology), and Non-STEM subjects (art, music, drama). Ninety-eight students (54, 55% female) were taught in single-gender and 168 (69, 41% female) in mixed-gender classrooms. Students undertook identical tests irrespective of classroom type, which were graded in accordance with U.K national curriculum guidelines. Controlling for students’ prior attainment, findings indicate that students do not appear to benefit from being taught in single-gender relative to mixed-gender classrooms in Language and STEM-related subjects. Young women benefitted from being taught in mixed-gender relative to single-gender classes for Non-STEM subjects. However, when prior ability is not controlled for, the intervention appears to be effective for all school subjects, highlighting the confounding influence of selective admissions. These findings suggest that gender-segregated classroom initiatives may not bolster students’ grades. It is argued that studies that do not control for selection effects may tell us little about the effectiveness of such interventions on scholastic achievement

    Introduction to Dark Matter

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