185,401 research outputs found

### Cosmological evolution of a ghost scalar field

We consider a scalar field with a negative kinetic term minimally coupled to
gravity. We obtain an exact non-static spherically symmetric solution which
describes a wormhole in cosmological setting. The wormhole is shown to connect
two homogeneous spatially flat universes expanding with acceleration. Depending
on the wormhole's mass parameter $m$ the acceleration can be constant (the de
Sitter case) or infinitely growing.Comment: 8 page

### Modulation of the Curie Temperature in Ferromagnetic/Ferroelectric Hybrid Double Quantum Wells

We propose a ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid double quantum well
structure, and present an investigation of the Curie temperature (Tc)
modulation in this quantum structure. The combined effects of applied electric
fields and spontaneous electric polarization are considered for a system that
consists of a Mn \delta-doped well, a barrier, and a p-type ferroelectric well.
We calculate the change in the envelope functions of carriers at the lowest
energy sub-band, resulting from applied electric fields and switching the
dipole polarization. By reversing the depolarizing field, we can achieve two
different ferromagnetic transition temperatures of the ferromagnetic quantum
well in a fixed applied electric field. The Curie temperature strongly depends
on the position of the Mn \delta-doped layer and the polarization strength of
the ferroelectric well.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures, to be published in Phys. Rev. B (2006) minor
revision: One of the line types is changed in Fig.

### Numerical investigation of separated transonic turbulent flows with a multiple-time-scale turbulence model

A numerical investigation of transonic turbulent flows separated by curvature and shock wave - boundary layer interaction is presented. The free stream Mach numbers considered are 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.825, 0.85, 0.875, 0.90, and 0.925. In the numerical method, the conservation of mass equation is replaced by a pressure correction equation for compressible flows and thus incremental pressure is solved for instead of density. The turbulence is described by a multiple-time-scale turbulence model supplemented with a near-wall turbulence model. The present numerical results show that there exists a reversed flow region at all free stream Mach numbers considered whereas various k-epsilon turbulence models fail to predict such a reversed flow region at low free stream Mach numbers. The numerical results also show that the size of the reversed flow region grows extensively due to the shock wave - turbulent boundary layer interaction as the free stream Mach number is increased. These numerical results show that the turbulence model can resolve the turbulence field subjected to extra strains caused by the curvature and the shock wave - turbulent boundary layer interaction and that the numerical method yields a significantly accurate solution for the complex compressible turbulent flow

### A near-wall turbulence model and its application to fully developed turbulent channel and pipe flows

A near wall turbulence model and its incorporation into a multiple-time-scale turbulence model are presented. In the method, the conservation of mass, momentum, and the turbulent kinetic energy equations are integrated up to the wall; and the energy transfer rate and the dissipation rate inside the near wall layer are obtained from algebraic equations. The algebraic equations for the energy transfer rate and the dissipation rate inside the near wall layer were obtained from a k-equation turbulence model and the near wall analysis. A fully developed turbulent channel flow and fully developed turbulent pipe flows were solved using a finite element method to test the predictive capability of the turbulence model. The computational results compared favorably with experimental data. It is also shown that the present turbulence model could resolve the over shoot phenomena of the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate in the region very close to the wall

### Numerical computation of shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interaction in transonic flow over an axisymmetric curved hill

A control-volume based finite difference computation of a turbulent transonic flow over an axisymmetric curved hill is presented. The numerical method is based on the SIMPLE algorithm, and hence the conservation of mass equation is replaced by a pressure correction equation for compressible flows. The turbulence is described by a k-epsilon turbulence model supplemented by a near-wall turbulence model. In the method, the dissipation rate in the region very close to the wall is obtained from an algebraic equation and that for the rest of the flow domain is obtained by solving a partial differential equation for the dissipation rate. The other flow equations are integrated up to the wall. It is shown that the present turbulence model yields the correct location of the compression shock. The other computational results are also in good agreement with experimental data

### Calculations of separated 3-D flows with a pressure-staggered Navier-Stokes equations solver

A Navier-Stokes equations solver based on a pressure correction method with a pressure-staggered mesh and calculations of separated three-dimensional flows are presented. It is shown that the velocity pressure decoupling, which occurs when various pressure correction algorithms are used for pressure-staggered meshes, is caused by the ill-conditioned discrete pressure correction equation. The use of a partial differential equation for the incremental pressure eliminates the velocity pressure decoupling mechanism by itself and yields accurate numerical results. Example flows considered are a three-dimensional lid driven cavity flow and a laminar flow through a 90 degree bend square duct. For the lid driven cavity flow, the present numerical results compare more favorably with the measured data than those obtained using a formally third order accurate quadratic upwind interpolation scheme. For the curved duct flow, the present numerical method yields a grid independent solution with a very small number of grid points. The calculated velocity profiles are in good agreement with the measured data

### Control-volume based Navier-Stokes equation solver valid at all flow velocities

A control-volume based finite difference method to solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations is presented. A pressure correction equation valid at all flow velocities and a pressure staggered grid layout are used in the method. Example problems presented herein include: a developing laminar channel flow, developing laminar pipe flow, a lid-driven square cavity flow, a laminar flow through a 90-degree bent channel, a laminar polar cavity flow, and a turbulent supersonic flow over a compression ramp. A k-epsilon turbulence model supplemented with a near-wall turbulence model was used to solve the turbulent flow. It is shown that the method yields accurate computational results even when highly skewed, unequally spaced, curved grids are used. It is also shown that the method is strongly convergent for high Reynolds number flows

### Numerical investigation of an internal layer in turbulent flow over a curved hill

A numerical investigation of incompressible and compressible turbulent flows over strongly curved surfaces is presented. The turbulent flow equations are solved by a pressure based Navier-Stokes equations solver. In the method, the conservation of mass equation is replaced by a pressure correction equation applicable for both compressible and incompressible flows. The turbulence is described by a multiple time scale turbulence model supplemented with a near-wall turbulence model. The numerical results show that the internal layer is a strong turbulence field which is developed beneath the external boundary layer and is located very close to the wall. The development of the internal layer is attributed to the enormous mean flow strain rate caused by the streamline curvature. The external boundary layer flow responds rather slowly to the streamline curvature. Thus, the turbulence field of the forward corner of the curved hill is characterized by two turbulence fields interacting with each other. The turbulence intensity of the internal layer is much stronger than that of the external boundary layer, so that the development of a new boundary layer in the downstream region of the curved hill depends mostly on the internal layer. These numerical results are in good agreement with the measured data, and show that the turbulence model can resolve the turbulence field subjected to the strong streamline curvature

### Numerical investigation of an internal layer in turbulent flow over a curved hill

The development of an internal layer in a turbulent boundary layer flow over a curved hill is investigated numerically. The turbulence field of the boundary layer flow over the curved hill is compared with that of a turbulent flow over a symmetric airfoil (which has the same geometry as the curved hill except that the leading and trailing edge plates were removed) to study the influence of the strongly curved surface on the turbulence field. The turbulent flow equations are solved by a control-volume based finite difference method. The turbulence is described by a multiple-time-scale turbulence model supplemented with a near-wall turbulence model. Computational results for the mean flow field (pressure distributions on the walls, wall shearing stresses and mean velocity profiles), the turbulence structure (Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles), and the integral parameters (displacement and momentum thicknesses) compared favorably with the measured data. Computational results show that the internal layer is a strong turbulence field which is developed beneath the external boundary layer and is located very close to the wall. Development of the internal layer was more obviously observed in the Reynolds stress profiles and in the turbulent kinetic energy profiles than in the mean velocity profiles. In this regard, the internal layers is significantly different from wall-bounded simple shear layers in which the mean velocity profile characterizes the boundary layer most distinguishably. Development of such an internal layer, characterized by an intense turbulence field, is attributed to the enormous mean flow strain rate caused by the streamline curvature and the strong pressure gradient. In the turbulent flow over the curved hill, the internal layer begin to form near the forward corner of the hill, merges with the external boundary layer, and develops into a new fully turbulent boundary layer as the fluid flows in the downstream direction. For the flow over the symmetric airfoil, the boundary layer began to form from almost the same location as that of the curved hill, grew in its strength, and formed a fully turbulent boundary layer from mid-part of the airfoil and in the downstream region. Computational results also show that the detailed turbulence structure in the region very close to the wall of the curved hill is almost the same as that of the airfoil in most of the curved regions except near the leading edge. Thus the internal layer of the curved hill and the boundary layer of the airfoil were also almost the same. Development of the wall shearing stress and separation of the boundary layer at the rear end of the curved hill mostly depends on the internal layer and is only slightly influenced by the external boundary layer flow

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