2,086 research outputs found

    Worst-case User Analysis in Poisson Voronoi Cells

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    In this letter, we focus on the performance of a worst-case mobile user (MU) in the downlink cellular network. We derive the coverage probability and the spectral efficiency of the worst-case MU using stochastic geometry. Through analytical and numerical results, we draw out interesting insights that the coverage probability and the spectral efficiency of the worst-case MU decrease down to 23% and 19% of those of a typical MU, respectively. By applying a coordinated scheduling (CS) scheme, we also investigate how much the performance of the worst-case MU is improved.Comment: Accepted, IEEE Communications Letter

    A Study on the Factors That Influence the Acoustic Performance of a Steel Stud Wall Assembly

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    With the recent introduction of light gauge steel framing systems in the concrete-dominated Korean construction industry, more buildings are built with drywall that is mainly composed of steel studs and gypsum boards. While load-bearing steel studs are extensively applied in residential construction, nonload-bearing steel studs are applied in various building fields such as commercial, educational, as well as residential. As building projects involving steel stud walls are becoming to increase, higher demands in performance are requested from architects and builders, especially in the field of sound performance. A series of acoustic test were performed in the nationally certified sound-testing laboratory at Korean Institute of Construction Technology (KICT) in order to evaluate and analyze factors that influence acoustic performance of steel stud wall assemblies. Factors affecting the acoustic performance of steel stud walls that are analyzed in this paper include among others, the composition and structure of steel studs, stud spacing, stud thickness, stud size, use of resilient channel, screw spacing, etc. Factors relating to gypsum boards that were tested as part of the evaluation of acoustic performance are not included in this paper. Results of this study, which is co-funded by 3 major gypsum board companies in Korea, are being used to develop stud wall assemblies that meet the required acoustic performance for unit-to-unit separating walls, as well as present architects and builders with a better understanding on the sound behavior of steel stud drywall

    Space-time accessibility measures: A geocomputational algorithm with a focus on the feasible opportunity set and possible activity duration.

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    Abstract. Space-time accessibility measures have received much attention in recent years due to their sensitivity to differences in individual ability to participate in activities in space and time. Despite the conceptual attractiveness and robustness of space-time measures, only few attempts have been made to operationalize them to date. Research that seeks to improve space-time accessibility measures is still sorely needed. This study seeks to enhance space-time accessibility measures through developing a new operational method and GIS-based algorithm that better represents the space-time characteristics of urban opportunities (e.g. their geographical distribution and opening hours) and human activity-travel behavior (e.g. delay times, minimum activity participation time, and maximum travel time threshold). The proposed method not only takes into account the number and size of opportunities, but also the possible activity duration at each activity location given its opening hours and the effect of transport network topology (e.g. one-way streets, turn restrictions and over-pass). Incorporating these elements into space-time measures helps overcome several shortcomings of previous approaches to evaluating space-time accessibility. Key words: Individual accessibility, space-time accessibility measures, spacetime constraint, space-time prism, GIS JEL classification: C60, R40 A version of this paper was presented at the 98th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, March 19-23, 2002. We thank Joe Weber for providing the digital transport network with travel speeds and a version of the geocomputational algorithm he used in his study (Weber 2001), upon which our developmental effort has been based. We are also grateful to the helpful comments and suggestions of the reviewers

    Meteorin regulates mesendoderm development by enhancing nodal expression

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    During gastrulation, distinct lineage specification into three germ layers, the mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm, occurs through an elaborate harmony between signaling molecules along the embryonic proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes, and Nodal signaling plays a key role in the early embryonic development governing embryonic axis formation, mesoderm and endoderm specification, and left-right asymmetry determination. However, the mechanism by which Nodal expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that Meteorin regulates Nodal expression and is required for mesendoderm development. It is highly expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts and further in the epiblast and extra-embryonic ectoderm during gastrulation. Genetic ablation of the Meteorin gene resulted in early embryonic lethality, presumably due to impaired lineage allocation and subsequent cell accumulation. Embryoid body culture using Meteorin-null embryonic stem (ES) cells showed reduced Nodal expression and concomitant impairment of mesendoderm specification. Meteorin-null embryos displayed reduced levels of Nodal transcripts before the gastrulation stage, and impaired expression of Goosecoid, a definitive endoderm marker, during gastrulation, while the proximo-distal and anterior-posterior axes and primitive streak formation were preserved. Our results show that Meteorin is a novel regulator of Nodal transcription and is required to maintain sufficient Nodal levels for endoderm formation, thereby providing new insights in the regulation of mesendoderm allocation.open1113sciescopu

    The Protective Effect of Apamin on LPS/Fat-Induced Atherosclerotic Mice

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    Apamin, a peptide component of bee venom (BV), has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the molecular mechanisms by which apamin prevents atherosclerosis are not fully understood. We examined the effect of apamin on atherosclerotic mice. Atherosclerotic mice received intraperitoneal (ip) injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg) to induce atherosclerotic change and were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Apamin (0.05 mg/kg) was administered by ip injection. LPS-induced THP-1-derived macrophage inflammation treated with apamin reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, as well as the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Apamin decreased the formation of atherosclerotic lesions as assessed by hematoxylin and elastic staining. Treatment with apamin reduced lipids, Ca2+ levels, and TNF-α in the serum from atherosclerotic mice. Further, apamin significantly attenuated expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, and fibronectin in the descending aorta from atherosclerotic mice. These results indicate that apamin plays an important role in monocyte/macrophage inflammatory processing and may be of potential value for preventing atherosclerosis

    EFFECTS OF WALKING SPEED AND AGE ON THE DIRECTIONAL STRIDE REGULARJRY AND GAIT VARIABILITY IN TREADMILL WALKING

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    The purpose of this study was to assess the directional stride regularity (SR) and gait variability (GV) of data from shoe-type inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors during levelled treadmill walking. The DynaStabtm (IMU based gait analysis system) including Smart Balance' (shoe-type data logger) was used to collect normal gait data from forty-four subjects in their 20s (n=20), 40s (n=13), and 60s (n=ll). Four different walking speeds (3, 4, 5, and 6 km/h, respectively) on a treadmill were applied for one-minute of continuous levelled walking. Only lateral kinematics (mediolateral acceleration and yawing and rolling angular velocities) revealed significant interactions from walking speed and age, demonstrating lower stride regularity and higher gait variability than the anteroposterior and vertical kinematics
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