4,176 research outputs found

    Parton energy loss, saturation, and recombination at BRAHMS

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    Particle production as observed with the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC is presented. Preliminary baryon/meson ratios and nuclear modification factors at different rapidities will be discussed.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, Lake Louise Winter Institute 2005 proceedin

    Spatiotemporal Effects of Dietary Bioactives on Lgr5+ Stem Cells during Colon Tumorigenesis

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    To better understand how the stem cells respond to environmental factors such as diet and carcinogen, we investigated the chemo-protective effects of dietary agents (n-3 PUFA and curcumin) on DNA damage response in colonic stem cells isolated from Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreER^T2 knock in mice injected with AOM. We demonstrated that n-3 PUFA and curcumin synergize to promote targeted apoptosis of damaged Lgr5⁺ stem cells in part by enhancing p53 signaling in Lgr5⁺ stem cells at the tumor initiation stage. In addition, at the pre-tumor stage of tumorigenesis in colon cancer, we demonstrated n-3 PUFA and curcumin combination synergistically reduces nuclear -catenin levels in aberrant crypt foci, a surrogate marker of colon cancer. In order to assess the dose-dependency of n-3 PUFA and curcumin action, we also calculated the median effective concentration and the Human equivalent dose of n-3 PUFA + curcumin required to remove DNA damaged Lgr5⁺ stem cells by targeted apoptosis. In order to further elucidate the effects of oncogenesis on the biophysical properties of the colonocyte plasma membrane at the pre tumor stage, we generated CDX2P-CreER^T2 –Apc^580S/+; KrasLSL-^G12D/+ (ACK) transgenic mice. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that oncogenic Apc and Kras increase plasma membrane order by perturbing cholesterol homeostasis and promoting cell proliferation. Genes associated with cholesterol uptake and de novo synthesis of cholesterol are enhanced in ACK mice. This process is associated with the upregulation of Myc signaling, a well-known upstream mediator of cholesterol homeostasis. Our preliminary findings also indicate that the addition of exogenous cholesterol can dose-dependently promote cell proliferation in colonic cell lines and mouse colonic organoids. In complementary experiments, we also investigated the chemo-protective effects of dietary agents on cholesterol homeostasis and plasma membrane order in ACK mice. Our findings indicate that perturbed plasma membrane order and cholesterol homeostasis is ameliorated by n-3 PUFA + curcumin feeding. In summary, our results indicate for the first time that fish oil plus curcumin synergistically reduce colon cancer risk in part by modulating (i) p53 signaling in Lgr5+ stem cells, and (ii) plasma membrane properties implicated in the regulation of the colon cancer cells and tumor development

    Spatiotemporal Effects of Dietary Bioactives on Lgr5+ Stem Cells during Colon Tumorigenesis

    Get PDF
    To better understand how the stem cells respond to environmental factors such as diet and carcinogen, we investigated the chemo-protective effects of dietary agents (n-3 PUFA and curcumin) on DNA damage response in colonic stem cells isolated from Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreER^T2 knock in mice injected with AOM. We demonstrated that n-3 PUFA and curcumin synergize to promote targeted apoptosis of damaged Lgr5⁺ stem cells in part by enhancing p53 signaling in Lgr5⁺ stem cells at the tumor initiation stage. In addition, at the pre-tumor stage of tumorigenesis in colon cancer, we demonstrated n-3 PUFA and curcumin combination synergistically reduces nuclear -catenin levels in aberrant crypt foci, a surrogate marker of colon cancer. In order to assess the dose-dependency of n-3 PUFA and curcumin action, we also calculated the median effective concentration and the Human equivalent dose of n-3 PUFA + curcumin required to remove DNA damaged Lgr5⁺ stem cells by targeted apoptosis. In order to further elucidate the effects of oncogenesis on the biophysical properties of the colonocyte plasma membrane at the pre tumor stage, we generated CDX2P-CreER^T2 –Apc^580S/+; KrasLSL-^G12D/+ (ACK) transgenic mice. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that oncogenic Apc and Kras increase plasma membrane order by perturbing cholesterol homeostasis and promoting cell proliferation. Genes associated with cholesterol uptake and de novo synthesis of cholesterol are enhanced in ACK mice. This process is associated with the upregulation of Myc signaling, a well-known upstream mediator of cholesterol homeostasis. Our preliminary findings also indicate that the addition of exogenous cholesterol can dose-dependently promote cell proliferation in colonic cell lines and mouse colonic organoids. In complementary experiments, we also investigated the chemo-protective effects of dietary agents on cholesterol homeostasis and plasma membrane order in ACK mice. Our findings indicate that perturbed plasma membrane order and cholesterol homeostasis is ameliorated by n-3 PUFA + curcumin feeding. In summary, our results indicate for the first time that fish oil plus curcumin synergistically reduce colon cancer risk in part by modulating (i) p53 signaling in Lgr5+ stem cells, and (ii) plasma membrane properties implicated in the regulation of the colon cancer cells and tumor development

    How Consumers Assess Multiple Cues: The Role of Dual Processing System on Hotel Booking Decisions

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    An online travel agency (OTA) is an important channel for hotels to generate new reservations. To make booking decisions, people collect and evaluate available information. Hotels try to provide effective information to persuade customers to book their hotel deals; however, not all information is manageable by the hotels. This research evaluates the effects of information on OTA websites with an approach based on the origins of the information. Depending on the origin, multiple cues can be categorized by two types, controllable and uncontrollable cues. A controllable cue is information that hotels can maintain, whereas an uncontrollable cue is not manageable because third parties such as OTAs or customers own the information. Based on this concept, the research examines the effects of a controllable cue according to the associated uncontrollable cue. The dual-processing theory is applied to understand shifting evaluations of multiple cues by adopting a priming method to manipulate thinking modes. This dissertation consists of two experimental studies to investigate the integrated effects of multiple cues as a function of the dual-processing system. Study 1 focuses on a combination of multiple cues including an endorsement-controllable cue and applies affective priming to activate different emotions prior to the hotel booking decision phase. Study 1 utilized a 2 uncontrollable cue (high vs. low customer rating) x 2 controllable cue (well-known vs. unknown brand) x 2 priming (positive vs. negative). Study 2 added a risk-controllable cue instead of an endorsement cue to demonstrate its combined effects with the same uncontrollable cue. The influence of the dual-processing system was tested using procedural priming. A 2 uncontrollable cue (high vs. low customer rating) x 2 controllable cue (scarcity vs. none) x 2 priming (hotel-related vs. irrelevant) design was utilized. In both studies, decision confidence was included as a covariate to control the influence of the relationship between the internal factor and dependent variables. Study 1 demonstrates that customer ratings determine the role of hotel brand. The positive effect of brand is amplified as a critical factor when customer rating is low. However, the effect of hotel brand nullifies when the hotel has a high customer rating. Positive emotions caused by affective priming lead more favorable evaluations than negative emotions. The findings of study 2 indicate that the evaluations of multiple cues can be altered by the value of the uncontrollable cue and procedural priming to activate the modes of processing information. Customer ratings rule over the effects of scarcity. Scarcity is perceived as a positive cue to increase the value of the hotel when customer rating is high. However, it is considered a negative cue to decrease hotel evaluations with a low rating. A heuristic process activated by irrelevant priming strengthens the value of the high rating while a systematic process triggered by hotel-related priming increases the value of a scarcity message. The findings of this research provide systematic approaches to understand the effects of multiple cues on OTA websites. Theoretical foundations are provided to understand the cue assessment mechanisms to support the findings. Industrial applications based on the findings of this research are suggested. This research emphasizes the importance of understanding uncontrollable cues and evaluation modes, shifted by emotions and task-relevance, to produce the best marketing strategies on OTA websites

    Using Course Assessments to Train Teachers in Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavioral Intervention Plan Techniques

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    As the need to train more teachers to work in inclusive classrooms increases, college instructors should identify and implement course assessments measuring their effectiveness in training practices. Skills in managing the challenging behaviors of students with disabilities, such as autism and emotional disturbances are important for teachers worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of a course assessment to develop Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP). The course assessment used in this study was developed, revised, and then implemented to evaluate participants‘ knowledge to identify, assess and develop plans to improve challenging behaviors of students with behavior disabilities. The course assessment was used in training teachers who currently hold general education certification in obtaining special education training. All participants were new teachers, previously certified in childhood education, and seeking additional certification in special education. Results show there were significant differences across the years of implementation of the study. The paper includes recommendations for other institutions of higher education to utilize similar course assessments into their teacher training programs

    Social Transmission of Fear in Rats: The Role of 22-kHz Ultrasonic Distress Vocalization

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    Background: Social alarm calls alert animals to potential danger and thereby promote group survival. Adult laboratory rats in distress emit 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) calls, but the question of whether these USV calls directly elicit defensive behavior in conspecifics is unresolved. Methodology/Principal Findings: The present study investigated, in pair-housed male rats, whether and how the conditioned fear-induced 22-kHz USVs emitted by the ‘sender ’ animal affect the behavior of its partner, the ‘receiver ’ animal, when both are placed together in a novel chamber. The sender rats ’ conditioned fear responses evoked significant freezing (an overt evidence of fear) in receiver rats that had previously experienced an aversive event but not in naïve receiver rats. Permanent lesions and reversible inactivations of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) of the thalamus effectively blocked the receivers ’ freeezing response to the senders ’ conditioned fear responses, and this occurred in absence of lesions/ inactivations impeding the receiver animals ’ ability to freeze and emit 22-kHz USVs to the aversive event per se. Conclusions/Significance: These results—that prior experience of fear and intact auditory system are required for receiver rats to respond to their conspecifics ’ conditioned fear responses—indicate that the 22-kHz USV is the main factor for socia
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