365 research outputs found

    Dysregulation of Iron Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Dysregulation of iron metabolism has been observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Utilization of several importers and exporters for iron transport in brain cells helps maintain iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of iron homeostasis leads to the production of neurotoxic substances and reactive oxygen species, resulting in iron-induced oxidative stress. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), circumstantial evidence has shown that dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis leads to abnormal iron accumulation. Several genetic studies have revealed mutations in genes associated with increased iron uptake, increased oxidative stress, and an altered inflammatory response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we review the recent findings on brain iron metabolism in common NDs, such as AD, PD, and ALS. We also summarize the conventional and novel types of iron chelators, which can successfully decrease excess iron accumulation in brain lesions. For example, iron-chelating drugs have neuroprotective effects, preventing neural apoptosis, and activate cellular protective pathways against oxidative stress. Glial cells also protect neurons by secreting antioxidants and antiapoptotic substances. These new findings of experimental and clinical studies may provide a scientific foundation for advances in drug development for NDs

    Laparoscopic and Endoscopic Cooperative Surgery for Gastric Submucosal Tumor Near Esophagogastric Junction With Sliding Hiatal Hernia

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    The usefulness of laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for gastric submucosal tumors in the cardiac region has been reported in recent years. However, LECS for submucosal tumors at the esophagogastric junction with hiatal sliding esophageal hernia has not been reported, and its validity as a treatment method is unknown. The patient was a 51-year-old man with a growing submucosal tumor in the cardiac region. Surgical resection was indicated because a definitive diagnosis of the tumor was not determined. The lesion was a luminal protrusion tumor, located on the posterior wall of the stomach 20 mm from the esophagogastric junction, and had a maximum diameter of 16.3 mm on endoscopic ultrasound examination. Because of the hiatal hernia, the lesion could not be detected from the gastric side by endoscopy. Local resection was considered to be feasible because the resection line did not extend into the esophageal mucosa and the resection site could be less than half the circumference of the lumen. The submucosal tumor was resected completely and safely by LECS. The tumor was diagnosed as a gastric smooth muscle tumor finally. Nine months after surgery, a follow-up endoscopy showed reflux esophagitis. LECS was a useful technique for submucosal tumors of the cardiac region with hiatal hernia, but fundoplication might be considered for preventing backflow of gastric acid

    A Case of Myoepithelial Hamartoma: Morphological Variation Supported by OCT4 Expression

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    In this report, we describe a patient with myoepithelial hamartoma, which is regarded as synonymous with adenomyosis and heterotopic pancreas. Endoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor in the antrum of the stomach. Subsequently, distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction was performed. Histological findings of adenomyomatous lesion and heterotopic pancreatic tissue were observed in this lesion. The distribution of OCT4, which is a pluripotency marker, varied in each part

    Spontaneous Remission of Solitary-Type Infantile Myofibromatosis

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    Infantile myofibromatosis is a rare fibrous tumor of infancy. The cutaneous solitary type has typically an excellent prognosis. However, histologically, it is important to rule out leiomyosarcoma, which has a poor prognosis. The low frequency of mitosis was definitive for a diagnosis of infantile myofibromatosis. We present a cutaneous solitary-type case of infantile myofibromatosis. Following incisional biopsy, the tumor remitted spontaneously

    Randomized Controlled Trial of Epidural versus Patient-controlled Intravenous Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Control after Laparoscopic Gastrectomy

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    Although epidural analgesia (EDA) is considered standard postoperative analgesia for open gastrectomy, it has been unclear whether EDA has benefits in laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) because postoperative pain after a laparoscopic procedure is significantly reduced. We are conducting a two-arm, single-center, prospective randomized non-inferiority trial to evaluate the postoperative pain relief of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) compared to EDA. A total of 132 patients undergoing LG will be randomized to EDA and PCIA groups (n=64 each) for postoperative pain control. The primary endpoint is postoperative pain at 24 h after surgery. This study will clarify the optimal pain management after LG