48 research outputs found

    Genome-wide analysis points to roles for extracellular matrix remodeling, the visual cycle, and neuronal development in myopia

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    Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the most common eye disorder, resulting primarily from excess elongation of the eye. The etiology of myopia, although known to be complex, is poorly understood. Here we report the largest ever genome-wide association study (43,360 participants) on myopia in Europeans. We performed a survival analysis on age of myopia onset and identified 19 significant associations (p < 5e-8), two of which are replications of earlier associations with refractive error. These 19 associations in total explain 2.7% of the variance in myopia age of onset, and point towards a number of different mechanisms behind the development of myopia. One association is in the gene PRSS56, which has previously been linked to abnormally small eyes; one is in a gene that forms part of the extracellular matrix (LAMA2); two are in or near genes involved in the regeneration of 11-cis-retinal (RGR and RDH5); two are near genes known to be involved in the growth and guidance of retinal ganglion cells (ZIC2, SFRP1); and five are in or near genes involved in neuronal signaling or development. These novel findings point towards multiple genetic factors involved in the development of myopia and suggest that complex interactions between extracellular matrix remodeling, neuronal development, and visual signals from the retina may underlie the development of myopia in humans

    Assessment of the genetic basis of rosacea by genome-wide association study.

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    Rosacea is a common, chronic skin disease that is currently incurable. Although environmental factors influence rosacea, the genetic basis of rosacea is not established. In this genome-wide association study, a discovery group of 22,952 individuals (2,618 rosacea cases and 20,334 controls) was analyzed, leading to identification of two significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with rosacea, one of which replicated in a new group of 29,481 individuals (3,205 rosacea cases and 26,262 controls). The confirmed SNP, rs763035 (P=8.0 × 10(-11) discovery group; P=0.00031 replication group), is intergenic between HLA-DRA and BTNL2. Exploratory immunohistochemical analysis of HLA-DRA and BTNL2 expression in papulopustular rosacea lesions from six individuals, including one with the rs763035 variant, revealed staining in the perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate of rosacea for both proteins. In addition, three HLA alleles, all MHC class II proteins, were significantly associated with rosacea in the discovery group and confirmed in the replication group: HLA-DRB1*03:01 (P=1.0 × 10(-8) discovery group; P=4.4 × 10(-6) replication group), HLA-DQB1*02:01 (P=1.3 × 10(-8) discovery group; P=7.2 × 10(-6) replication group), and HLA-DQA1*05:01 (P=1.4 × 10(-8) discovery group; P=7.6 × 10(-6) replication group). Collectively, the gene variants identified in this study support the concept of a genetic component for rosacea, and provide candidate targets for future studies to better understand and treat rosacea

    Efficient Replication of Over 180 Genetic Associations with Self-Reported Medical Data

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    While the cost and speed of generating genomic data have come down dramatically in recent years, the slow pace of collecting medical data for large cohorts continues to hamper genetic research. Here we evaluate a novel online framework for amassing large amounts of medical information in a recontactable cohort by assessing our ability to replicate genetic associations using these data. Using web-based questionnaires, we gathered self-reported data on 50 medical phenotypes from a generally unselected cohort of over 20,000 genotyped individuals. Of a list of genetic associations curated by NHGRI, we successfully replicated about 75% of the associations that we expected to (based on the number of cases in our cohort and reported odds ratios, and excluding a set of associations with contradictory published evidence). Altogether we replicated over 180 previously reported associations, including many for type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, cholesterol levels, and multiple sclerosis. We found significant variation across categories of conditions in the percentage of expected associations that we were able to replicate, which may reflect systematic inflation of the effects in some initial reports, or differences across diseases in the likelihood of misdiagnosis or misreport. We also demonstrated that we could improve replication success by taking advantage of our recontactable cohort, offering more in-depth questions to refine self-reported diagnoses. Our data suggests that online collection of self-reported data in a recontactable cohort may be a viable method for both broad and deep phenotyping in large populations

    A genome-wide association meta-analysis of self-reported allergy identifies shared and allergy-specific susceptibility loci

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    Allergic disease is very common and carries substantial public-health burdens. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide associations with self-reported cat, dust-mite and pollen allergies in 53,862 individuals. We used generalized estimating equations to model shared and allergy-specific genetic effects. We identified 16 shared susceptibility loci with association P < 5 × 10-8, including 8 loci previously associated with asthma, as well as 4p14 near TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10 (rs2101521, P = 5.3 × 10 -21); 6p21.33 near HLA-C and MICA (rs9266772, P = 3.2 × 10 -12); 5p13.1 near PTGER4 (rs7720838, P = 8.2 × 10 -11); 2q33.1 in PLCL1 (rs10497813, P = 6.1 × 10-10), 3q28 in LPP (rs9860547, P = 1.2 × 10-9); 20q13.2 in NFATC2 (rs6021270, P = 6.9 × 10-9), 4q27 in ADAD1 (rs17388568, P = 3.9 × 10-8); and 14q21.1 near FOXA1 and TTC6 (rs1998359, P = 4.8 × 10-8). We identified one locus with substantial evidence of differences in effects across allergies at 6p21.32 in the class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region (rs17533090, P = 1.7 × 10-12), which was strongly associated with cat allergy. Our study sheds new light on the shared etiology of immune and autoimmune disease

    A large-scale genome-wide association study meta-analysis of cannabis use disorder

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    Summary Background Variation in liability to cannabis use disorder has a strong genetic component (estimated twin and family heritability about 50–70%) and is associated with negative outcomes, including increased risk of psychopathology. The aim of the study was to conduct a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with cannabis use disorder. Methods To conduct this GWAS meta-analysis of cannabis use disorder and identify associations with genetic loci, we used samples from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Substance Use Disorders working group, iPSYCH, and deCODE (20 916 case samples, 363 116 control samples in total), contrasting cannabis use disorder cases with controls. To examine the genetic overlap between cannabis use disorder and 22 traits of interest (chosen because of previously published phenotypic correlations [eg, psychiatric disorders] or hypothesised associations [eg, chronotype] with cannabis use disorder), we used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate genetic correlations. Findings We identified two genome-wide significant loci: a novel chromosome 7 locus (FOXP2, lead single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7783012; odds ratio [OR] 1·11, 95% CI 1·07–1·15, p=1·84 × 10−9) and the previously identified chromosome 8 locus (near CHRNA2 and EPHX2, lead SNP rs4732724; OR 0·89, 95% CI 0·86–0·93, p=6·46 × 10−9). Cannabis use disorder and cannabis use were genetically correlated (rg 0·50, p=1·50 × 10−21), but they showed significantly different genetic correlations with 12 of the 22 traits we tested, suggesting at least partially different genetic underpinnings of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use disorder was positively genetically correlated with other psychopathology, including ADHD, major depression, and schizophrenia. Interpretation These findings support the theory that cannabis use disorder has shared genetic liability with other psychopathology, and there is a distinction between genetic liability to cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. Funding National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine and the Centre for Integrative Sequencing; The European Commission, Horizon 2020; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Health Research Council of New Zealand; National Institute on Aging; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; UK Research and Innovation Medical Research Council (UKRI MRC); The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation; National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia; Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California; Families for Borderline Personality Disorder Research (Beth and Rob Elliott) 2018 NARSAD Young Investigator Grant; The National Child Health Research Foundation (Cure Kids); The Canterbury Medical Research Foundation; The New Zealand Lottery Grants Board; The University of Otago; The Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics; The James Hume Bequest Fund; National Institutes of Health: Genes, Environment and Health Initiative; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; The William T Grant Foundation; Australian Research Council; The Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation; The VISN 1 and VISN 4 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Centers of the US Department of Veterans Affairs; The 5th Framework Programme (FP-5) GenomEUtwin Project; The Lundbeck Foundation; NIH-funded Shared Instrumentation Grant S10RR025141; Clinical Translational Sciences Award grants; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of General Medical Sciences.Peer reviewe

    Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes:Evidence from genome-wide association studies

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    First published: 16 February 202

    The Science Case for Io Exploration

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    Io is a priority destination for solar system exploration, as it is the best natural laboratory to study the intertwined processes of tidal heating, extreme volcanism, and atmosphere-magnetosphere interactions. Io exploration is relevant to understanding terrestrial worlds (including the early Earth), ocean worlds, and exoplanets across the cosmos
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