314 research outputs found

    Chern-Simons Term and Charged Vortices in Abelian and Nonabelian Gauge Theories

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    In this article we review some of the recent advances regarding the charged vortex solutions in abelian and nonabelian gauge theories with Chern-Simons (CS) term in two space dimensions. Since these nontrivial results are essentially because of the CS term, hence, we first discuss in some detail the various properties of the CS term in two space dimensions. In particular, it is pointed out that this parity (P) and time reversal (T) violating but gauge invariant term when added to the Maxwell Lagrangian gives a massive gauge quanta and yet the theory is still gauge invariant. Further, the vacuum of such a theory shows the magneto-electric effect. Besides, we show that the CS term can also be generated by spontaneous symmetry breaking as well as by radiative corrections. A detailed discussion about Coleman-Hill theorem is also given which aserts that the parity-odd piece of the vacuum polarization tensor at zero momentum transfer is unaffected by two and multi-loop effects. Topological quantization of the coefficient of the CS term in nonabelian gauge theories is also elaborated in some detail. One of the dramatic effect of the CS term is that the vortices of the abelian (as well as nonabelian) Higgs model now acquire finite quantized charge and angular momentum. The various properties of these vortices are discussed at length with special emphasis on some of the recent developments including the discovery of the self-dual charged vortex solutions.Comment: To be published in the Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy, Part A-physical Science

    Supersymmetry in Quantum Mechanics

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    An elementary introduction is given to the subject of Supersymmetry in Quantum Mechanics. We demonstrate with explicit examples that given a solvable problem in quantum mechanics with n bound states, one can construct new exactly solvable n Hamiltonians having n-1,n-2,...,0 bound states. The relationship between the eigenvalues, eigenfunctions and scattering matrix of the supersymmetric partner potentials is derived and a class of reflectionless potentials are explicitly constructed. We extend the operator method of solving the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator problem to a class of potentials called shape invariant potentials. Further, we show that given any potential with at least one bound state, one can very easily construct one continuous parameter family of potentials having same eigenvalues and s-matrix. The supersymmetry inspired WKB approximation (SWKB) is also discussed and it is shown that unlike the usual WKB, the lowest order SWKB approximation is exact for the shape invariant potentials. Finally, we also construct new exactly solvable periodic potentials by using the machinery of supersymmetric quantum mechanics.Comment: Latex file, 4 figures, Lecture Notes presented at EALF 2004, Will be published in the AIP Conference Proceedings AI

    Classical and quantum mechanics of a particle on a rotating loop

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    The toy model of a particle on a vertical rotating circle in the presence of uniform gravitational/ magnetic fields is explored in detail. After an analysis of the classical mechanics of the problem we then discuss the quantum mechanics from both exact and semi--classical standpoints. Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation are obtained in some cases by diverse methods. Instantons, bounces are constructed and semi-classical, leading order tunneling amplitudes/decay rates are written down. We also investigate qualitatively the nature of small oscillations about the kink/bounce solutions. Finally, the connections of these toy examples with field theoretic and statistical mechanical models of relevance are pointed out.Comment: 30 pages, RevTex, 7 figure

    Superposition of Elliptic Functions as Solutions For a Large Number of Nonlinear Equations

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    For a large number of nonlinear equations, both discrete and continuum, we demonstrate a kind of linear superposition. We show that whenever a nonlinear equation admits solutions in terms of both Jacobi elliptic functions \cn(x,m) and \dn(x,m) with modulus mm, then it also admits solutions in terms of their sum as well as difference. We have checked this in the case of several nonlinear equations such as the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, MKdV, a mixed KdV-MKdV system, a mixed quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, the Ablowitz-Ladik equation, the saturable nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, λϕ4\lambda \phi^4, the discrete MKdV as well as for several coupled field equations. Further, for a large number of nonlinear equations, we show that whenever a nonlinear equation admits a periodic solution in terms of \dn^2(x,m), it also admits solutions in terms of \dn^2(x,m) \pm \sqrt{m} \cn(x,m) \dn(x,m), even though \cn(x,m) \dn(x,m) is not a solution of these nonlinear equations. Finally, we also obtain superposed solutions of various forms for several coupled nonlinear equations.Comment: 40 pages, no figure