26,506 research outputs found

    TSEP: Threshold-sensitive Stable Election Protocol for WSNs

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    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are expected to find wide applicability and increasing deployment in near future. In this paper, we propose a new protocol, Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP), which is reactive protocol using three levels of heterogeneity. Reactive networks, as opposed to proactive networks, respond immediately to changes in relevant parameters of interest. We evaluate performance of our protocol for a simple temperature sensing application and compare results of protocol with some other protocols LEACH, DEEC, SEP, ESEP and TEEN. And from simulation results it is observed that protocol outperforms concerning life time of sensing nodes used.Comment: 10th IEEE International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT 12), 201

    On Modeling Geometric Joint Sink Mobility with Delay-Tolerant Cluster-less Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Moving Sink (MS) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has appeared as a blessing because it collects data directly from the nodes where the concept of relay nodes is becomes obsolete. There are, however, a few challenges to be taken care of, like data delay tolerance and trajectory of MS which is NP-hard. In our proposed scheme, we divide the square field in small squares. Middle point of the partitioned area is the sojourn location of the sink, and nodes around MS are in its transmission range, which send directly the sensed data in a delay-tolerant fashion. Two sinks are moving simultaneously; one inside and having four sojourn locations and other in outer trajectory having twelve sojourn locations. Introduction of the joint mobility enhances network life and ultimately throughput. As the MS comes under the NP-hard problem, we convert it into a geometric problem and define it as, Geometric Sink Movement (GSM). A set of linear programming equations has also been given in support of GSM which prolongs network life time

    Analyzing Delay in Wireless Multi-hop Heterogeneous Body Area Networks

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    With increase in ageing population, health care market keeps growing. There is a need for monitoring of health issues. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of wireless sensors attached on or inside human body for monitoring vital health related problems e.g, Electro Cardiogram (ECG), Electro Encephalogram (EEG), ElectronyStagmography (ENG) etc. Due to life threatening situations, timely sending of data is essential. For data to reach health care center, there must be a proper way of sending data through reliable connection and with minimum delay. In this paper transmission delay of different paths, through which data is sent from sensor to health care center over heterogeneous multi-hop wireless channel is analyzed. Data of medical related diseases is sent through three different paths. In all three paths, data from sensors first reaches ZigBee, which is the common link in all three paths. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) are connected with ZigBee. Each network (WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS) is setup according to environmental conditions, suitability of device and availability of structure for that device. Data from these networks is sent to IP-Cloud, which is further connected to health care center. Delay of data reaching each device is calculated and represented graphically. Main aim of this paper is to calculate delay of each link in each path over multi-hop wireless channel.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1208.240

    On Energy Efficiency and Delay Minimization in Reactive Protocols in Wireless Multi-hop Networks

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    In Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs), routing protocols with energy efficient and delay reduction techniques are needed to fulfill users demands. In this paper, we present Linear Programming models (LP_models) to assess and enhance reactive routing protocols. To practically examine constraints of respective LP_models over reactive protocols, we select AODV, DSR and DYMO. It is deduced from analytical simulations of LP_models in MATLAB that quick route repair reduces routing latency and optimizations of retransmission attempts results efficient energy utilization. To provide quick repair, we enhance AODV and DSR. To practically examine the efficiency of enhanced protocols in different scenarios of WMhNs, we conduct simulations using NS- 2. From simulation results, enhanced DSR and AODV achieve efficient output by optimizing routing latencies and routing load in terms of retransmission attempts

    Social Profile Of The Aged In An Urban Population

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    Research Problem: What is the socio-demographic profile of urban aged population in Aligarh city. Objectives: i) To describe the socio-demographic profile of the aged population in an urban area, ii) To describe the attitude of these people. Design:Cross-sectional study. Setting : Urban areas of Aligarh city. Participants : 3951 persons aged 60 years and above Study Variables: Socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes. Statistical Analysis : By proportions. Result: 15% of the total  stimated elderly population covering all 10 sectors of Aligarh city was studied. The majority ofthe elderly (72.4%) belonged to 60-70 years age group. Most of them (77.2%) were illiterate, 61.6% belonged to lower socio-economic classes (IV & V), 78.1 % lived in joint families. 39.6% of the aged felt that they were not being given due respect by family members. Nearly half of them had an indifferent or unhappy attitude towards life. Conclusion: The socio-demographic characteristics of the aged are important and must be kept in mind for developing programs to assist them in living as respectful senior citizens

    On using Multiple Quality Link Metrics with Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol for Wireless Multi-Hop Networks

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    In this paper, we compare and analyze performance of five quality link metrics forWireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs). The metrics are based on loss probability measurements; ETX, ETT, InvETX, ML and MD, in a distance vector routing protocol; DSDV. Among these selected metrics, we have implemented ML, MD, InvETX and ETT in DSDV which are previously implemented with different protocols; ML, MD, InvETX are implemented with OLSR, while ETT is implemented in MR-LQSR. For our comparison, we have selected Throughput, Normalized Routing Load (NRL) and End-to-End Delay (E2ED) as performance parameters. Finally, we deduce that InvETX due to low computational burden and link asymmetry measurement outperforms among all metrics

    DSDV, DYMO, OLSR: Link Duration and Path Stability

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    In this paper, we evaluate and compare the impact of link duration and path stability of routing protocols; Destination Sequence Distance vector (DSDV), Dynamic MANET On- Demand (DYMO) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) at different number of connections and node density. In order to improve the efficiency of selected protocols; we enhance DYMO and OLSR. Simulation and comparison of both default and enhanced routing protocols is carried out under the performance parameters; Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Average End-to End Delay (AE2ED) and Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO). From the results, we observe that DYMO performs better than DSDV, MOD-OLSR and OLSR in terms of PDR, AE2ED, link duration and path stability at the cost of high value of NRO
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