27 research outputs found

    Bilateral and International Trade of Bangladesh and India: Effect of Falling Exchange Rate of Indian Rupee

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    Money is the most important thing in the current world. It is a tangible good with a lot of intangible properties. It’s most important feature is its exchangeability. It pursues a man to purchase. When money is used for exchanging it is defined with a special term called currency. Currency is the only one exchange medium in the modern era. It is universal that the change rate of a currency of a specific nation can change the trade balance of it. And it can influence on the trade of those countries who are involved however with that country. In this paper we will see how a currency rate of one country can reign over international trade of another country. Keywords: Bilateral trade, Greenback, GDP, FDI, SAFTA, 4207 cod

    Shock Induced Damage Mechanism Of Perineuronal Net

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    ECM components, such as the Perineuronal net (PNN), one of the most prevalent parts surrounding the neuronal cell. PNN is a protective net-like structure regulating neuronal activity such as neurotransmission, charge balance and generates an action potential. Shock induced damage of this essential component may cause neuronal cell death and potentially leads to CTE, AD diseases, PTSD, etc. The shock generated possibly during an accident, improvised devie explosion or collision between NFL players may lead to damage to this safety net. The goal is to investigate the mechanics of PNN under shock wave. To understand the mechanics of PNN, mechanical properties of different PNN components such as glycan, GAG, and protein need to be evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the mechanical strength of PNN molecules and the interfacial strength between the components of PNN. Afterward, we have assessed the PNN molecules' damage efficiency at various conditions such as shock speed, preexisting bubble, and boundary conditions. The secondary structure altercation of the protein molecules of the PNN has been analyzed to evaluate damage intensity under varying shock loading. At higher shock speed, damage intensity is more elevated, and hyaluronan is most likely to break at the rigid junction. The primary structure of the protein molecules is most unlikely to fail. Instead, the molecules' secondary bonds will be altered. Our study suggests that the number of hydrogen bonds during the shock wave propagation decreased.Comment: 2

    Bionanocomposite based on cellulose nanowhisker from oil palm biomass-filled poly(lactic acid)

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    Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) extracted from plant fibers exhibit remarkable properties that make them suitable for use in the development of bionanocomposites. CNW have demonstrated the capability to enhance the properties of a polymer matrix at low filler loading. In this study, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) bionanocomposites were prepared using the solution casting technique, by incorporating the PLA with the CNW obtained from an oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed no significant changes in the PLA peak positions, which indicates that incorporating the CNW into the PLA did not result in any significant changes in the chemical structure of the PLA. Thermogravimetric analysis, on the other hand, revealed that the bionanocomposites (PLA-CNW) had better thermal stability than the pure PLA. The tensile strength of PLA-CNW increased by 84% with the addition of 3 parts of CNW per hundred resins (phr), and decreased thereafter. Moreover, a linear relationship was observed between the Young's modulus and CNW loading. Elongation at break, however, decreased with the addition of 1-phr CNW, and remained constant with further addition. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that agglomeration of CNW occurred at 5-phr loading, consistent with the tensile strength results. Overall, the CNW obtained from OPEFB can enhance the tensile and the thermal properties of bionanocomposites

    Pooled analysis of WHO Surgical Safety Checklist use and mortality after emergency laparotomy

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    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist has fostered safe practice for 10 years, yet its place in emergency surgery has not been assessed on a global scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate reported checklist use in emergency settings and examine the relationship with perioperative mortality in patients who had emergency laparotomy. Methods In two multinational cohort studies, adults undergoing emergency laparotomy were compared with those having elective gastrointestinal surgery. Relationships between reported checklist use and mortality were determined using multivariable logistic regression and bootstrapped simulation. Results Of 12 296 patients included from 76 countries, 4843 underwent emergency laparotomy. After adjusting for patient and disease factors, checklist use before emergency laparotomy was more common in countries with a high Human Development Index (HDI) (2455 of 2741, 89.6 per cent) compared with that in countries with a middle (753 of 1242, 60.6 per cent; odds ratio (OR) 0.17, 95 per cent c.i. 0.14 to 0.21, P <0001) or low (363 of 860, 422 per cent; OR 008, 007 to 010, P <0.001) HDI. Checklist use was less common in elective surgery than for emergency laparotomy in high-HDI countries (risk difference -94 (95 per cent c.i. -11.9 to -6.9) per cent; P <0001), but the relationship was reversed in low-HDI countries (+121 (+7.0 to +173) per cent; P <0001). In multivariable models, checklist use was associated with a lower 30-day perioperative mortality (OR 0.60, 0.50 to 073; P <0.001). The greatest absolute benefit was seen for emergency surgery in low- and middle-HDI countries. Conclusion Checklist use in emergency laparotomy was associated with a significantly lower perioperative mortality rate. Checklist use in low-HDI countries was half that in high-HDI countries.Peer reviewe

    Global variation in anastomosis and end colostomy formation following left-sided colorectal resection