932 research outputs found

    Absence of Typical Haversian System from the Compact Bone of Some Reptile and Bird Species

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    Background and Objective: Mammalian compact bone is composed mostly of Haversian system. Although there are many studies describing the typical Haversian system in mammals, there are few studies conducted on bones from non-mammalian species. The objective of the current study was to investigate the existence of the typical Haversian system in compact bones from reptiles and birds. Materials and Methods: Femora were collected from geckos, Nile monitors, sparrows, ducks and geese. Samples were then, fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Von Kossa and then examined using light microscopy. Results: The current study showed different histological structures of compact bones from studied species and an absence of the typical Haversian system seen in mammals. The compact bone of geckos was mostly avascular, while Nile monitor bone was highly vascular. Sparrow bone showed one side vascular and the other side avascular. The vascularity was represented by primary vascular canals surrounded by a few irregularly arranged osteocytes inside their lacunae forming primary osteons. Bone tissue from ducks and geese were similar and were composed mostly of dense Haversian tissue, while some areas had primary osteons. Conclusion: The compact bone microstructure in some reptile and bird species lack the typical Haversian system described in mammals. This will be of a great importance in developing a better understanding of long bone anatomy and physiology in different species

    Acinetobacter baumannii extracted silver nanoparticles: A study on the characterization and antibacterial activity

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    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem, associated with increased mortality. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are promising solution. Aim: To improve the anti-microbial resistance using Acinetobacter baumannii  (A. baumannii) biosynthesized silver nitrate.Methods: Optimization of biosynthesis condition and characterization by Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (U-V-Vis) at a wavelength from 300 to 400 nm, ±1.67 nm. The Acinetobacter baumannii biosynthesized silver nitrate was examined using transmission electron microscope (TEM).  Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy was done to study the capping material, X-ray spectroscopy confirm silver nanoparticles synthesis with particle size match TEM measuring and testing its antibacterial effect was done. Results: The obtained U.V Spectroscopy and TEM characters of silver nitrate biosynthesized A.baumannii. Acinetobacter baumannii biosynthesized silver nitrate was obtained indicated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was from 1-3 mg/ml against extreme drug resistance bacteria. the size of silver nanoparticles was found to be between 18 nm and 50 nm. The AgNPs were found to be stable for over 6 months at 37°C.The MIC for AgNPs formed from A. baumannii CFF was detected as 2.85 mg/ml, MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) was 3 mg/ml for K. pneumonia, MIC was 1 mg/ml, MBC was 0.5 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa and MIC was 1.5 mg/ml and MBC was 1 mg/ml for A. baumannii isolates. Lethal concentration (LC) 50% was 60.584 ug/ml) assessed by Sulforhodamine-B assay on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Conclusion: Acinetobacter baumannii extracted silver nitrate has A promising antibacterial action that may help in solving the multidrug resistance bacteria

    Histological Sequences of Long Bone Development in the New Zealand White Rabbits

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    Long bone development occurred through endochondral ossification. The current study investigated the main histological changes associated with the development of humerus from the New Zealand white rabbits. The upper limb or humerus during embryonic (12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 24 and 27 days) and neonatal (3 and 7 days) development was processed for light microscopy. Three stages preceded endochondral ossification; limb bud (mesenchymal cells), cartilage primordia (mesenchymal condensation and differentiation into chondrocytes) and cartilage template (organization of chondrocytes into proliferative and hypertrophic zones) by 12, 14 and 15 days, respectively. At day 16, cartilage template elongated forming a cartilaginous diaphysis of the prospective humerus. At day 18, cartilaginous epiphyses were formed. Medullary cavity was established by day 21 with no signs of calcification in the bone collar. Primary ossification center appeared within the diaphysis at day 24 of embryonic development. Secondary ossification centers were seen within the epiphyses by day 3 of neonatal development. Two types of cartilage canals were investigated; short epiphyseal canals appeared from day 21 and long transphyseal canals appeared from day 27. At day 7 of neonatal development, the cartilage of the humerus was limited in two places; articular epiphyseal growth cartilage between articular surface and secondary ossification center, epiphyseal physeal growth cartilage between the secondary and primary ossification centers. The current study summarized the main histological stages of development of rabbit humerus. These results should be considered in molecular studies of endochondral bone formation

    Efficacy of Probiotic in Improving Welfare and Mitigating Overcrowding Stress in Broilers

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    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of probiotic in improving welfare of broilers reared under low stocking density (LSD) and mitigating high stocking density (HSD) stress. A total number of 240 chicks were sub divided into four groups with three replicates for each. Two groups were reared under LSD (10 bird/m2).; 48 chicks (16 bird/ replicate) for each and another 2 groups were reared under HSD (15 bird/m2); 72 chicks (24 bird/ replicate). At each density, one group was supplemented with Protexin® and the other was not supplemented. Blood corticosterone (CS) level was measured and behavior of broilers was recorded weekly. At the end of the growing cycle, behavioral welfare fear response test (time of first attempt to stand, number of attempts to stand and tonic immobility duration) was performed and brain monoamines (serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine) concentrations were measured. As a result, HSD stress increased the time birds spent to perform the first attempt to stand and prolonged TI duration. However, Protexin® supplementation only reduced the time of first attempt to stand at higher density without alteration of the number of attempts required to induce TI. No significant improvement in fear response in LSD birds supplied with Protexin®. Furthermore, HSD stress decreased feeding, drinking and walking duration. However, Protexin® supplementation improved feeding, drinking and walking behaviors at LSD and did not improve behaviors of birds at HSD. Moreover, HSD increased CS levels at the 4th, 5th and 6th week of the growing cycle. However, Protexin® supplementation had a decreasing effect on CS levels in the birds reared at HD at the last two weeks of the growing cycle. In addition, brain serotonin concentration was increased in birds reared at HD without Protexin® supplementation and showed no alteration in that supplemented with the probiotic at LSD and HSD. Data suggests that, Protexin® supplementation may be beneficial in improving welfare (behavior al indicator) of broilers reared at LSD and alleviate some effects of HSD stress on birds

    Effects of Probiotic on Comfort and Body Care Behaviors of Broilers Reared at Different Stocking Densities

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    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of probiotic on comfort and body care behaviors of broilers reared at two different densities. Two hundred and forty chicks were subdivided into four groups, two groups were reared under low stocking density (LSD); 10 bird/m2 and another 2 groups were reared under high stocking density (HSD); 15 bird/m2. In each density, one group was supplemented with probiotic in the drinking water and the other was not supplemented. Normal behavior of birds was recorded throughout the growing cycle twice a week, using video camera (Sony, Japan). Then after, comfort (standing, lying and sleeping), body care (preening, dust bathing, wing/leg stretching and head scratching) and aggressive behaviors of birds were analyzed. HSD reduced comfort behavior compared to low density without probiotic group. Standing frequency was significantly increased at the 6th week of the growing cycle. In addition, interrupted lying bouts frequency was increased and the non-interrupted lying bouts (frequency and duration) were decreased significantly. Moreover, preening frequency was decreased. However, aggressive behavior was not observed in all groups. Probiotic supplementation didn’t alter comfort, aggressive and body care behaviors of broilers at both densities in comparison to low density without probiotic group. However, birds stocked at high stocking density and supplemented with probiotic showed no alterations in all behavioral patterns compared to HSD group without probiotic supplementation. Data suggested that the used probiotic in this study was unable to improve comfort and body care behaviors of broilers reared at low stocking density and failed to alleviate impacts of high density stress on these behaviors

    Problems and Functional Disabilities Among Patients with Cervical Disc and Relationship with Low Back Pain

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    Background: cervical disc disorder is associated with many  problems and functional disabilities which affect quality of life for patients. Neck pain is as common as low back pain which are considered from associated problems with cervical disc. Aim: This study was conducted to assess problems and functional disabilities among patients with cervical disc and relationship with low back pain. Design and Setting: A descriptive exploratory correlational study design was used and data were collected from Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department and it's affiliated out patient clinic of Tanta Main University Hospital. Sample: Purposive sampling of (90) patients from previous mentioned setting during follow-up period. Tools: Three tools were used for data collection: Tool (I); Sociodemographic and Medical data of the patients, Tool (II); Neck Disability Index scale to examine the degree of disability resulted from cervical disc and its effect on daily activities. Tool (III); Roland-Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire to assess pain-related disability resulting from low back pain.  Results: As a result of this study, the majority (66.7%) of the patients had complete level of neck disability and (82.2%) of them had high level of disability due to low back pain. Moreover the majority of the patients (67.6%) had high level of disability due to low back pain associated with complete neck disability due to cervical disc. Significant positive correlation was noted between total score of neck disability index and total score of roland-morrislow back pain and disability.Conclusion and Recommendation: These results indicate that majority of the patients had complete level of neck disability and high level of disability due to low back pain. Significant positive correlation was noted between total score of neck disability index and total score of roland-morrislow back pain and disability. Further research must be done in many settings to evaluate whether disability prevention or interventions can improve functional disabilities. Keywords: Cervical disc, functional disability, Low Back Pain. DOI: 10.7176/JHMN/61-05 Publication date: April 30th 201

    THE VIRTUALITY OF INTELLIGENT CITIES - THE ROAD TO HYBRIDIZING OUR NEW CITIES

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    The incorporation IoT into our social systems and the digitization of our everyday life has become the new norm for societies worldwide. This study posits that digitization should apply to our cities as well. The digital aspect of technology is not always tangible – even in the figurative sense of grasping a concept – and its allure lies in this virtual aspect. That is the starting point of discussion in this paper – the virtuality of intelligent cities, the intangible forces that make these new cities smart, and how said forces can be incorporated to create new smart hybrid cities that also aim to be intelligent, connected, and efficient. This research paper was designed to first set a strong theoretical base, which includes how the Circular City Actions CCA assessment framework works. This framework is applied to the three virtual methods, Sharing Economy, Smart Parking, and Virtual Power Plants VPP, as well as an international case study, the VPP in South Australia. The CCA framework was then applied to the data gathered for the local case study, the New Administrative Capital NAC in Egypt, which was chosen because it is the largest smart city being constructed currently in Egypt right now. Since it is still not fully operational, the data collected was based on governmental plans, proposals, and published papers about the city released within the last 5 years. After theoretically incorporating the proposed virtual methods into the NAC’s plans and reapplying the assessment framework, the results were greatly improved in different aspects. This study made it clear that the NAC has a strong hypothetical foundation to become an intelligent connected city, but there were some missed opportunities of incorporating virtual intelligent solutions to be implemented at different levels as the three proposed in this paper to reach its goal

    Profiling of nosocomial infection in hepatic patients

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    Background: Nosocomial infection (NCI) is a problem with global concern due to increasing morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Chronic liver disease increases the chance of NCI by suppressing cell and antibody mediated immunity. Aim: We aimed in this study to visualize the problem of NCI in hepatic patients regarding organisms causing it, pattern of resistance and possible device associated with its existence. Methods: End stage chronic hepatitis C patients who admitted to the National Liver Institute Hospital, Menoufia University, were enrolled in this observational study. Different samples from alleged sites further processed by conventional culture and sensitivity techniques and confirmed by VITEK2C2 system. Antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates was assessed.  Pan drug resistance  (PDR) Acinetobacter baumannii to Omp A, bap, and Csu E virulence genes was further processed by Multiplex PCR.  Results: Gram- negative pathogens were significantly higher in CAUTI. The most predominant nosocomial organism was Pseudomonas aeruginosa which represent 19% (32 from 168), followed by Staph aureus that account for 17.86% (30 from 168), Acinetobacter baumannii signify 14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia form 11.9%. MDR represents 123 isolates from 168 with 73.2% percentage, while XDR represents 23.8% of total isolates.  Pan drug resistance Acinetobacter baumannii represents 5 from 24 isolates. It was associated with CAUTI and CLBSI but non-significant. 4 PDR isolates show Prescence of Omp A, Csu E, and bap biofilm forming genes. Conclusions: MDR NCI in hepatic patients need more attention regarding rational use of antibiotics especially with appearance of PDR Acinetobacter baumannii carrying Omp A, Csu E, and bap biofilm forming genes

    Evaluation of Clinical and Biochemical Traits in Egyptian Barki Sheep with Different Growth Performances.

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    The Barki sheep industry is becoming increasingly important in Egypt because of the high quality of their meat and wool. This sheep breed is also commonly known for its resistance to arid and harsh environmental conditions. Such characteristics can be exploited in solving the problematic situation of inadequate animal protein for human consumption, particularly under climatic changes. However, very few studies have investigated aspects of breeding, nutrition, and susceptibility to infectious or non-infectious diseases in Barki sheep. Herein, we propose to unravel the differences in the clinical and biochemical profiles among Barki sheep of different growth rates. We measured clinical and biochemical parameters in stunted (n = 10; test group) and in good body condition (n = 9; control group) Barki sheep. Animals subjected to this experiment were of the same sex (female), age (12 months old), and housed in the same farm with similar conditions of feeding, management practice, and vaccination and deworming regimens. Regarding clinical examination, stunted/tested sheep showed a significantly higher pulse and respiratory rate compared to sheep with a good body condition/control group. The appetite, body temperature, and digestion processes were the same in both groups. In biochemical investigations, nutritional biomarkers were reduced markedly in stunted sheep compared with the control sheep, including total protein (p = 0.0445), albumin (p = 0.0087), cholesterol (p = 0.0007), and triglycerides (p = 0.0059). In addition, the Barki sheep test group suffered from higher levels of urea and blood urea nitrogen than the control group. Consistently, growth and thyroid hormone levels were lower in stunted sheep than the control sheep, although the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). No significant differences were detected in both groups for serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, and zinc (p > 0.05). To detect the reasons for emaciation, certain debilitating infections were tested. All tested sheep showed negative coprological tests for gastrointestinal parasites, and had no obvious seropositivity to brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, or Q fever. This study demonstrates the useful biochemical markers for monitoring growth performance in Egyptian Barki sheep and unravels the usefulness of this breed in nationwide breeding and farming

    A novel computer-aided diagnosis system for the early detection of hypertension based on cerebrovascular alterations

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    © 2019 The Authors Hypertension is a leading cause of mortality in the USA. While simple tools such as the sphygmomanometer are widely used to diagnose hypertension, they could not predict the disease before its onset. Clinical studies suggest that alterations in the structure of human brains’ cerebrovasculature start to develop years before the onset of hypertension. In this research, we present a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the early detection of hypertension. The proposed CAD system analyzes magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data of human brains to detect and track the cerebral vascular alterations and this is achieved using the following steps: i) MRA data are preprocessed to eliminate noise effects, correct the bias field effect, reduce the contrast inhomogeneity using the generalized Gauss-Markov random field (GGMRF) model, and normalize the MRA data, ii) the cerebral vascular tree of each MRA volume is segmented using a 3-D convolutional neural network (3D-CNN), iii) cerebral features in terms of diameters and tortuosity of blood vessels are estimated and used to construct feature vectors, iv) feature vectors are then used to train and test various artificial neural networks to classify data into two classes; normal and hypertensive. A balanced data set of 66 subjects were used to test the CAD system. Experimental results reported a classification accuracy of 90.9% which supports the efficacy of the CAD system components to accurately model and discriminate between normal and hypertensive subjects. Clinicians would benefit from the proposed CAD system to detect and track cerebral vascular alterations over time for people with high potential of developing hypertension and to prepare appropriate treatment plans to mitigate adverse events
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