38 research outputs found

    Risk reduction and diversification in UK commercial property portfolios

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    The issue of diversification in direct real estate investment portfolios has been one of the most widely studied topics in academic and practitioner literature. Most work, however, has been done using mean returns and risks for broad market segments as inputs to asset allocation models, or in a few cases using data from small sets of individual properties. This paper reports results from a comprehensive testing of asset allocation modelling drawing on records of 10,000+ UK properties tracked by Investment Property Databank. It provides for the first time robust estimates of the diversification gains attainable given return, risk and cross-correlations across individual properties actually available to fund managers. The discussion of results covers implications for the number of assets and amount of money needed to construct “balanced” portfolios by direct investment, or via indirect specialist vehicles.Publisher PD

    Valuation Accuracy: Reconciling the Timing of the Valuation and Sale

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    Carsberg (2002) suggested that the periodic valuation accuracy studies undertaken by, amongst others, IPD/Drivers Jonas (2003) should be undertaken every year and be sponsored by the RICS, which acts as the self-regulating body for valuations in the UK. This paper does not address the wider issues concerning the nature of properties which are sold and whether the sale prices are influenced by prior valuations, but considers solely the technical issues concerning the timing of the valuation and sales data. This study uses valuations and sales data from the Investment Property Databank UK Monthly Index to attempt to identify the date that sale data is divulged to valuers. This information will inform accuracy studies that use a cut-off date as to the closeness of valuations to sales completion date as a yardstick for excluding data from the analysis. It will also, assuming valuers are informed quickly of any agreed sales, help to determine the actual sale agreed date rather than the completion date, which includes a period of due diligence between when the sale is agreed and its completion. Valuations should be updated to this date, rather than the formal completion date, if a reliable measure of valuation accuracy is to be determined. An accuracy study is then undertaken using a variety of updating periods and the differences between the results are examined. The paper concludes that the sale only becomes known to valuers in the month prior to the sale taking place and that this assumes either that sales due diligence procedures are shortening or valuers are not told quickly of agreed sale prices. Studies that adopt a four-month cut-off date for any valuations compared to sales completion dates are over cautious, and this could be reduced to two months without compromising the data.

    Toward an Extended Definition of Major Depressive Disorder Symptomatology: Digital Assessment and Cross-validation Study.

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    BACKGROUND: Diagnosing major depressive disorder (MDD) is challenging, with diagnostic manuals failing to capture the wide range of clinical symptoms that are endorsed by individuals with this condition. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide evidence for an extended definition of MDD symptomatology. METHODS: Symptom data were collected via a digital assessment developed for a delta study. Random forest classification with nested cross-validation was used to distinguish between individuals with MDD and those with subthreshold symptomatology of the disorder using disorder-specific symptoms and transdiagnostic symptoms. The diagnostic performance of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was also examined. RESULTS: A depression-specific model demonstrated good predictive performance when distinguishing between individuals with MDD (n=64) and those with subthreshold depression (n=140) (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.89; sensitivity=82.4%; specificity=81.3%; accuracy=81.6%). The inclusion of transdiagnostic symptoms of psychopathology, including symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, insomnia, emotional instability, and panic disorder, significantly improved the model performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.95; sensitivity=86.5%; specificity=90.8%; accuracy=89.5%). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was excellent at identifying MDD but overdiagnosed the condition (sensitivity=92.2%; specificity=54.3%; accuracy=66.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are in line with the notion that current diagnostic practices may present an overly narrow conception of mental health. Furthermore, our study provides proof-of-concept support for the clinical utility of a digital assessment to inform clinical decision-making in the evaluation of MDD

    The Delta Study - Prevalence and characteristics of mood disorders in 924 individuals with low mood: Results of the of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).

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    OBJECTIVES: The Delta Study was undertaken to improve the diagnosis of mood disorders in individuals presenting with low mood. The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence and explore the characteristics of mood disorders in participants of the Delta Study, and discuss their implications for clinical practice. METHODS: Individuals with low mood (Patients Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥5) and either no previous mood disorder diagnosis (baseline low mood group, n = 429), a recent (≤5 years) clinical diagnosis of MDD (baseline MDD group, n = 441) or a previous clinical diagnosis of BD (established BD group, n = 54), were recruited online. Self-reported demographic and clinical data were collected through an extensive online mental health questionnaire and mood disorder diagnoses were determined with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS: The prevalence of BD and MDD in the baseline low mood group was 24% and 36%, respectively. The prevalence of BD among individuals with a recent diagnosis of MDD was 31%. Participants with BD in both baseline low mood and baseline MDD groups were characterized by a younger age at onset of the first low mood episode, more severe depressive symptoms and lower wellbeing, relative to the MDD or low mood groups. Approximately half the individuals with BD diagnosed as MDD (49%) had experienced (hypo)manic symptoms prior to being diagnosed with MDD. CONCLUSIONS: The current results confirm high under- and misdiagnosis rates of mood disorders in individuals presenting with low mood, potentially leading to worsening of symptoms and decreased well-being, and indicate the need for improved mental health triage in primary care

    Real world evaluation of three models of NHS smoking cessation service in England

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>NHS Stop Smoking Services provide various options for support and counselling. Most services have evolved to suit local needs without any retrospective evaluation of their efficiency.</p> <p>Three local service evaluations were carried out at Bournemouth & Poole Teaching Primary Care Trust (PCT) (PCT1), NHS South East Essex (PCT2) and NHS Warwickshire (PCT3) to describe the structure and outcomes associated with different services.</p> <p>Result</p> <p>Standardised interviews with key personnel in addition to analysis of data from 400 clients accessing the service after 1<sup>st </sup>April 2008 in each PCT. The PCTs varied in geography, population size and quit rate (47%-63%). Services were delivered by PCT-led specialist teams (PCT1), community-based healthcare providers (PCT3) and a combination of the two (PCT2) with varying resources and interventions in each.</p> <p>Group support resulted in the highest quit rates (64.3% for closed groups v 42.6% for one-to-one support (PCT1)). Quit rates were higher for PCT (75.0%) v GP (62.0%) and pharmacist-delivered care (41.0%) where all existed in the same model (PCT2). The most-prescribed therapy was NRT (55.8%-65.0%), followed by varenicline (24.5%-34.3%), counselling alone (6.0%-7.8%) and bupropion (2.0%-4.0%).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The results suggest that service structure, method of support, healthcare professional involved and pharmacotherapy all play a role in a successful quit. Services must be tailored to support individual needs with patient choice and access to varied services being key factors.</p