385 research outputs found

    Disk-Like Structure in the Semi-Regular Pulsating Star, X Her

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    The author reports a result of an interferometric observation of the semiragular pulsating star with an unusual narrow molecular line profile, X Her, in the CO J=1-0 line with the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland array. In the CO spectrum, a double-component profile (including narrow and broad components) is seen as reported by previous observations. The narrow component consists of two spiky peaks. The spatial structure of the board component shows bipolar shape, and that of the narrow component shows an elliptical/spherical shape. The two peaks in the narrow component show a systematic difference in the integrated intensity map. The kinematical and geometrical properties of the narrow component are reminiscent of a Keplerian rotating disk with the central mass of 0.9 M_sun, though an interpretation by an expansion disk seems to be more natural. A secondary bipolar flow instead of the disk cannot be fully excluded as an interpretation of the narrow line.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figues, accepted for publication in Ap

    Field #3 of the Palomar-Groningen Survey II. Near-infrared photometry of semiregular variables

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    Near-infrared photometry (JHKL'M) was obtained for 78 semiregular variables (SRVs) in field #3 of the Palomar-Groningen survey (PG3, l=0, b=-10). Together with a sample of Miras in this field a comparison is made with a sample of field SRVs and Miras. The PG3 SRVs form a sequence (period-luminosity & period-colour) with the PG3 Miras, in which the SRVs are the short period extension to the Miras. The field and PG3 Miras follow the same P/(J--K)o relation, while this is not the case for the field and PG3 SRVs. Both the PG3 SRVs and Miras follow the SgrI period-luminosity relation adopted from Glass et al. (1995, MNRAS 273, 383). They are likely pulsating in the fundamental mode and have metallicities spanning the range from intermediate to approximately solar.Comment: 14 pages LaTeX (2 tables, 8 figures), to appear in A&A 338 (1998); minor modifications in tex

    Mass loss rates of a sample of irregular and semiregular M-type AGB-variables

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    We have determined mass loss rates and gas expansion velocities for a sample of 69 M-type irregular (IRV; 22 objects) and semiregular (SRV; 47 objects) AGB-variables using a radiative transfer code to model their circumstellar CO radio line emission. We believe that this sample is representative for the mass losing stars of this type. The (molecular hydrogen) mass loss rate distribution has a median value of 2.0E-7 solar masses per year. M-type IRVs and SRVs with a mass loss rate in excess of 5E-7 solar masses per year must be very rare, and among these mass losing stars the number of sources with mass loss rates below a few 10E-8 solar masses per year must be small. We find no significant difference between the IRVs and the SRVs in terms of their mass loss characteristics. Among the SRVs the mass loss rate shows no dependence on the period. Likewise the mass loss rate shows no correlation with the stellar temperature. The gas expansion velocity distribution has a median of 7.0 km/s. The mass loss rate and the gas expansion velocity correlate well, a result in line with theoretical predictions for an optically thin, dust-driven wind. In general, the model produces line profiles which acceptably fit the observed ones. We have compared the results of this M-star sample with a similar C-star sample analysed in the same way. The mass loss rate characteristics are very similar for the two samples. On the contrary, the gas expansion velocity distributions are clearly different. In particular, the number of low-velocity sources is much higher in the M-star sample. We found no example of the sharply double-peaked CO line profile, which is evidence of a large, detached CO-shell, among the M-stars. About 10% of the C-stars show this phenomenon.Comment: 16 pages, 11 figures, accepted by A&

    Hipparcos period-luminosity relations for Miras and semiregular variables

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    We present period-luminosity diagrams for nearby Miras and semiregulars, selecting stars with parallaxes better than 20 per cent and well-determined periods. Using K-band magnitudes, we find two well-defined P-L sequences, one corresponding to the standard Mira P-L relation and the second shifted to shorter periods by a factor of about 1.9. The second sequence only contains semiregular variables, while the Mira sequence contains both Miras and semiregulars. Several semiregular stars show double periods in agreement with both relations. The Whitelock evolutionary track is shown to fit the data, indicating that the semiregulars are Mira progenitors. The transition between the two sequences may correspond to a change in pulsation mode or to a change in the stellar structure. Large amplitude pulsations leading to classical Mira classification occur mainly near the tip of the local AGB luminosity function.Comment: 10 pages with figures, accepted by ApJ Letter

    Probing the inner wind of AGB stars: Interferometric observations of SiO millimetre line emission from the oxygen-rich stars R Dor and L2 Pup

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    High angular resolution Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of SiO `thermal' millimetre line emission towards the two oxygen-rich, low mass loss rate AGB stars R Dor and L2 Pup are presented. In both cases the emission is resolved with an overall spherical symmetry. Detailed radiative transfer modelling of the SiO line emission has been performed, and the comparison between observations and models are conducted in the visibility plane, maximizing the sensitivity. The excitation analysis suggests that the abundance of SiO is as high as 4E-5 in the inner part of the wind, close to the predicted values from stellar atmosphere models. Beyond a radius of ~ 1E15 cm the SiO abundance is significantly lower, about 3E-6, until it decreases strongly at a radius of about 3E15 cm. This is consistent with a scenario where SiO first freezes out onto dust grains, and then eventually becomes photodissociated by the interstellar UV-radiation field. In these low expansion velocity sources the turbulent broadening of the lines plays an important role in the line formation. Micro-turbulent velocity widths in the range 1.1-1.5 km/s result in a very good reproduction of the observed line shapes even if the gas expansion velocity is kept constant. This, combined with the fact that the SiO and CO lines are well fitted using the same gas expansion velocity (to within 5-10%), suggest that the envelope acceleration occurs close to the stellar photosphere, within 20-30 stellar radii.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A, 14 pages, 14 figure

    Privacy-Preserving Observation in Public Spaces

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    One method of privacy-preserving accounting or billing in cyber-physical systems, such as electronic toll collection or public transportation ticketing, is to have the user present an encrypted record of transactions and perform the accounting or billing computation securely on them. Honesty of the user is ensured by spot checking the record for some selected surveyed transactions. But how much privacy does that give the user, i.e. how many transactions need to be surveyed? It turns out that due to collusion in mass surveillance all transactions need to be observed, i.e. this method of spot checking provides no privacy at all. In this paper we present a cryptographic solution to the spot checking problem in cyber-physical systems. Users carry an authentication device that authenticates only based on fair random coins. The probability can be set high enough to allow for spot checking, but in all other cases privacy is perfectly preserved. We analyze our protocol for computational efficiency and show that it can be efficiently implemented even on plat- forms with limited computing resources, such as smart cards and smart phones

    `Thermal' SiO radio line emission towards M-type AGB stars: a probe of circumstellar dust formation and dynamics

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    An extensive radiative transfer analysis of circumstellar SiO `thermal' radio line emission from a large sample of M-type AGB stars has been performed. The sample contains 18 irregulars of type Lb (IRV), 7 and 34 semiregulars of type SRa and SRb (SRV), respectively, and 12 Miras. New observational material, which contains data in several SiO rotational lines in the ground vibrational state, is presented for the IRV/SRVs. The detection rate was about 60%. SiO fractional abundances have been determined through radiative transfer modelling. The abundance distribution of the IRV/SRV sample has a median value of 8E-6. The high mass loss rate Miras have a bimodal abundance distribution, a low abundance group (on average 4E-7) and a high abundance group (on average 7E-6). The derived SiO abundances are in all cases well below the abundance expected from stellar atmosphere chemistry, on average by a factor of ten. In addition, there is a trend of decreasing SiO abundance with increasing mass loss rate. This is interpreted in terms of depletion of SiO molecules by the formation of silicate grains in the circumstellar envelopes, with an efficiency which increases with the mass loss rate. The SiO and CO radio line profiles differ in shape. In general, the dominating part of the SiO profiles are narrower than the CO profiles, but they have low-intensity wings which cover the full velocity range of the CO profile. This is interpreted (as has been done also by others) as due to the influence of gas acceleration in the region which produces a significant fraction of the SiO line emission. Finally, a number of sources which have peculiar CO line profiles are discussed from the point of view of their SiO line properties

    The geometry of the close environment of SV Psc as probed by VLTI/MIDI

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    Context. SV Psc is an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star surrounded by an oxygen-rich dust envelope. The mm-CO line profile of the object's outflow shows a clear double-component structure. Because of the high angular resolution, mid-IR interferometry may give strong constraints on the origin of this composite profile. Aims. The aim of this work is to investigate the morphology of the environment around SV Psc using high-angular resolution interferometry observations in the mid-IR with the Very Large Telescope MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (VLTI/MIDI). Methods. Interferometric data in the N-band taken at different baseline lengths (ranging from 32-64 m) and position angles (73- 142{\deg}) allow a study of the morphology of the circumstellar environment close to the star. The data are interpreted on the basis of 2-dimensional, chromatic geometrical models using the fitting software tool GEM-FIND developed for this purpose. Results. The results favor two scenarios: (i) the presence of a highly inclined, optically thin, dusty disk surrounding the central star; (ii) the presence of an unresolved binary companion at a separation of 13.7 AU and a position angle of 121.8{\deg} NE. The derived orbital period of the binary is 38.1 yr. This detection is in good agreement with hydrodynamic simulations showing that a close companion could be responsible for the entrainment of the gas and dust into a circumbinary structure.Comment: 10 pages, 12 figure