2,451 research outputs found

### Z3-graded Grassmann Variables, Parafermions and their Coherent States

A relation between the $Z_3$-graded Grassmann variables and parafermions is
established. Coherent states are constructed as a direct consequence of such a
relationship. We also give the analog of the Bargmann-Fock representation in
terms of these Grassmann variables.Comment: 8 page

### Z_3-graded exterior differential calculus and gauge theories of higher order

We present a possible generalization of the exterior differential calculus,
based on the operator d such that d^3=0, but d^2\not=0. The first and second
order differentials generate an associative algebra; we shall suppose that
there are no binary relations between first order differentials, while the
ternary products will satisfy the cyclic relations based on the representation
of cyclic group Z_3 by cubic roots of unity. We shall attribute grade 1 to the
first order differentials and grade 2 to the second order differentials; under
the associative multiplication law the grades add up modulo 3. We show how the
notion of covariant derivation can be generalized with a 1-form A, and we give
the expression in local coordinates of the curvature 3-form. Finally, the
introduction of notions of a scalar product and integration of the Z_3-graded
exterior forms enables us to define variational principle and to derive the
differential equations satisfied by the curvature 3-form. The Lagrangian
obtained in this way contains the invariants of the ordinary gauge field tensor
F_{ik} and its covariant derivatives D_i F_{km}.Comment: 13 pages, no figure

### On the glass transition temperature in covalent glasses

We give a simple demonstration of the formula relating the glass transition
temperature, $T_g$, to the molar concentration $x$ of a modifier in two types
of glasses: binary glasses, whose composition can be denoted by
$X_nY_m+xM_pY_q$, with ^$X$ an element of III-rd or IV-th group (e.g. B, or Si,
Ge), while $M_pY_q$ is an alkali oxide or chalcogenide; next, the network
glasses of the type $A_xB_{1-x}$, e.g. $Ge_xSe_{1-x}$, $Si_xTe_{1-x}$, etc.
After comparison, this formula gives an exact expression of the parameter
$\beta$ of the modified Gibbs-Di Marzio equation.Comment: 15 pages, LateX; ([email protected]), ([email protected]

### Cellular automata approach to three-phase traffic theory

The cellular automata (CA) approach to traffic modeling is extended to allow
for spatially homogeneous steady state solutions that cover a two dimensional
region in the flow-density plane. Hence these models fulfill a basic postulate
of a three-phase traffic theory proposed by Kerner. This is achieved by a
synchronization distance, within which a vehicle always tries to adjust its
speed to the one of the vehicle in front. In the CA models presented, the
modelling of the free and safe speeds, the slow-to-start rules as well as some
contributions to noise are based on the ideas of the Nagel-Schreckenberg type
modelling. It is shown that the proposed CA models can be very transparent and
still reproduce the two main types of congested patterns (the general pattern
and the synchronized flow pattern) as well as their dependence on the flows
near an on-ramp, in qualitative agreement with the recently developed continuum
version of the three-phase traffic theory [B. S. Kerner and S. L. Klenov. 2002.
J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35, L31]. These features are qualitatively different
than in previously considered CA traffic models. The probability of the
breakdown phenomenon (i.e., of the phase transition from free flow to
synchronized flow) as function of the flow rate to the on-ramp and of the flow
rate on the road upstream of the on-ramp is investigated. The capacity drops at
the on-ramp which occur due to the formation of different congested patterns
are calculated.Comment: 55 pages, 24 figure

### Probabilistic Description of Traffic Breakdowns

We analyze the characteristic features of traffic breakdown. To describe this
phenomenon we apply to the probabilistic model regarding the jam emergence as
the formation of a large car cluster on highway. In these terms the breakdown
occurs through the formation of a certain critical nucleus in the metastable
vehicle flow, which enables us to confine ourselves to one cluster model. We
assume that, first, the growth of the car cluster is governed by attachment of
cars to the cluster whose rate is mainly determined by the mean headway
distance between the car in the vehicle flow and, may be, also by the headway
distance in the cluster. Second, the cluster dissolution is determined by the
car escape from the cluster whose rate depends on the cluster size directly.
The latter is justified using the available experimental data for the
correlation properties of the synchronized mode. We write the appropriate
master equation converted then into the Fokker-Plank equation for the cluster
distribution function and analyze the formation of the critical car cluster due
to the climb over a certain potential barrier. The further cluster growth
irreversibly gives rise to the jam formation. Numerical estimates of the
obtained characteristics and the experimental data of the traffic breakdown are
compared. In particular, we draw a conclusion that the characteristic intrinsic
time scale of the breakdown phenomenon should be about one minute and explain
the case why the traffic volume interval inside which traffic breakdown is
observed is sufficiently wide.Comment: RevTeX 4, 14 pages, 10 figure

### The cubic chessboard

We present a survey of recent results, scattered in a series of papers that
appeared during past five years, whose common denominator is the use of cubic
relations in various algebraic structures. Cubic (or ternary) relations can
represent different symmetries with respect to the permutation group S_3, or
its cyclic subgroup Z_3. Also ordinary or ternary algebras can be divided in
different classes with respect to their symmetry properties. We pay special
attention to the non-associative ternary algebra of 3-forms (or ``cubic
matrices''), and Z_3-graded matrix algebras. We also discuss the Z_3-graded
generalization of Grassmann algebras and their realization in generalized
exterior differential forms. A new type of gauge theory based on this
differential calculus is presented. Finally, a ternary generalization of
Clifford algebras is introduced, and an analog of Dirac's equation is
discussed, which can be diagonalized only after taking the cube of the
Z_3-graded generalization of Dirac's operator. A possibility of using these
ideas for the description of quark fields is suggested and discussed in the
last Section.Comment: 23 pages, dedicated to A. Trautman on the occasion of his 64th
birthda

### Stability Analysis of Optimal Velocity Model for Traffic and Granular Flow under Open Boundary Condition

We analyzed the stability of the uniform flow solution in the optimal
velocity model for traffic and granular flow under the open boundary condition.
It was demonstrated that, even within the linearly unstable region, there is a
parameter region where the uniform solution is stable against a localized
perturbation. We also found an oscillatory solution in the linearly unstable
region and its period is not commensurate with the periodicity of the car index
space. The oscillatory solution has some features in common with the
synchronized flow observed in real traffic.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures. Typos removed. To appear in J. Phys. Soc. Jp

### Memory effects in microscopic traffic models and wide scattering in flow-density data

By means of microscopic simulations we show that non-instantaneous adaptation
of the driving behaviour to the traffic situation together with the
conventional measurement method of flow-density data can explain the observed
inverse-$\lambda$ shape and the wide scattering of flow-density data in
``synchronized'' congested traffic. We model a memory effect in the response of
drivers to the traffic situation for a wide class of car-following models by
introducing a new dynamical variable describing the adaptation of drivers to
the surrounding traffic situation during the past few minutes (``subjective
level of service'') and couple this internal state to parameters of the
underlying model that are related to the driving style. % For illustration, we
use the intelligent-driver model (IDM) as underlying model, characterize the
level of service solely by the velocity and couple the internal variable to the
IDM parameter ``netto time gap'', modelling an increase of the time gap in
congested traffic (``frustration effect''), that is supported by single-vehicle
data. % We simulate open systems with a bottleneck and obtain flow-density data
by implementing ``virtual detectors''. Both the shape, relative size and
apparent ``stochasticity'' of the region of the scattered data points agree
nearly quantitatively with empirical data. Wide scattering is even observed for
identical vehicles, although the proposed model is a time-continuous,
deterministic, single-lane car-following model with a unique fundamental
diagram.Comment: 8 pages, submitted to Physical Review

### Interpreting the Wide Scattering of Synchronized Traffic Data by Time Gap Statistics

Based on the statistical evaluation of experimental single-vehicle data, we
propose a quantitative interpretation of the erratic scattering of flow-density
data in synchronized traffic flows. A correlation analysis suggests that the
dynamical flow-density data are well compatible with the so-called jam line
characterizing fully developed traffic jams, if one takes into account the
variation of their propagation speed due to the large variation of the netto
time gaps (the inhomogeneity of traffic flow). The form of the time gap
distribution depends not only on the density, but also on the measurement cross
section: The most probable netto time gap in congested traffic flow upstream of
a bottleneck is significantly increased compared to uncongested freeway
sections. Moreover, we identify different power-law scaling laws for the
relative variance of netto time gaps as a function of the sampling size. While
the exponent is -1 in free traffic corresponding to statistically independent
time gaps, the exponent is about -2/3 in congested traffic flow because of
correlations between queued vehicles.Comment: For related publications see http://www.helbing.or

### General theory of instabilities for patterns with sharp interfaces in reaction-diffusion systems

An asymptotic method for finding instabilities of arbitrary $d$-dimensional
large-amplitude patterns in a wide class of reaction-diffusion systems is
presented. The complete stability analysis of 2- and 3-dimensional localized
patterns is carried out. It is shown that in the considered class of systems
the criteria for different types of instabilities are universal. The specific
nonlinearities enter the criteria only via three numerical constants of order
one. The performed analysis explains the self-organization scenarios observed
in the recent experiments and numerical simulations of some concrete
reaction-diffusion systems.Comment: 21 pages (RevTeX), 8 figures (Postscript). To appear in Phys. Rev. E
(April 1st, 1996

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