5 research outputs found

    Sensitivity of Simulated Hurricane Eyewall Replacement Cycles to Horizontal Turbulent Mixing

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    Eyewall replacement cycles (ERCs) are naturally occurring phenomena in some intense tropical cyclones. The exact mechanisms of ERCs are currently not known and successful numerical simulations of ERCs are also rare. The objectives of this thesis are to 1) validate the current ERC theories for a set of numerical simulations which resolved ERC processes, 2) investigate the role of boundary layer turbulence in ERCs, and 3) propose a mechanism for ERCs. Using the Advanced Research and Weather Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model, Hurricane Danielle (2010) was simulated. The ERCs that occurred in simulated Danielle are sensitive to parameterized horizontal turbulent mixing. Five theories on the initiating mechanisms of eyewall replace cycles are discussed with respect to each of our simulations and based on the results, a new idea of how the eyewall replacement process formed in our simulations is proposed. Two sensitivity experiments are performed to test the validity of this mechanism

    Northern Tornadoes Project. Northern Tornadoes Flyover Project: Summary Technical Report of the Year 1 Pilot Study

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    Summary Northern Tornadoes Flyover Project: Summary Technical Report of the Year 1 Pilot Study Gregory A. Kopp, Emilio Hong and Joanne Kennell Faculty of Engineering, University of Western Ontario David Sills Environment and Climate Change Canada 12 January 2018 The objectives of the Year 1 Pilot Study were to (i) develop a methodology for determining tornado occurrence in Northern Ontario, and (ii) obtain research quality data for at least one event. Because of the isolation of many regions, the approach assumed the use of radar data analysis combined with aerial surveys. These objectives were achieved. Aerial surveys were conducted for a total of seven events in Ontario and southern Quebec and 15 confirmed or probable tornadoes identified. Archival geo-tagged imagery was obtained for six of these events. Ten confirmed or probable tornadoes were identified in Ontario, five of which were not in the OSPC database. In addition, 5 tornadoes were confirmed in Quebec. For the 2017 season, the OSPC had a list of 10 verified tornadoes, as of December 21, 2017. The pilot project raises this number to 15. In total, 4 EF2 tornadoes and 1 EF3 tornado were identified via aerial photography. The remainder were EF1 or EF0. UPDATE – 1 March 2021 Based on the analysis of newly available Planet.com high-resolution satellite imagery and the use of related tools, events were reassessed and six additional tornadoes were discovered. However, four tornadoes were reassessed as downbursts. Overall, an additional two tornadoes were added to the 2017 count. The updated events are listed in a revised 2017 summary table appended at the end of this document

    Genomic Insights into the Atopic Eczema-Associated Skin Commensal Yeast Malassezia sympodialis

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    <p>Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders, such as atopic eczema/dermatitis and dandruff, and they also can cause systemic infections. Here we describe the 7.67-Mbp genome of Malassezia sympodialis, a species associated with atopic eczema, and contrast its genome repertoire with that of Malassezia globosa, associated with dandruff, as well as those of other closely related fungi. Ninety percent of the predicted M. sympodialis protein coding genes were experimentally verified by mass spectrometry at the protein level. We identified a relatively limited number of genes related to lipid biosynthesis, and both species lack the fatty acid synthase gene, in line with the known requirement of these yeasts to assimilate lipids from the host. Malassezia species do not appear to have many cell wall-localized glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) proteins and lack other cell wall proteins previously identified in other fungi. This is surprising given that in other fungi these proteins have been shown to mediate interactions (e. g., adhesion and biofilm formation) with the host. The genome revealed a complex evolutionary history for an allergen of unknown function, Mala s 7, shown to be encoded by a member of an amplified gene family of secreted proteins. Based on genetic and biochemical studies with the basidiomycete human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, we characterized the allergen Mala s 6 as the cytoplasmic cyclophilin A. We further present evidence that M. sympodialis may have the capacity to undergo sexual reproduction and present a model for a pseudobipolar mating system that allows limited recombination between two linked MAT loci.</p><p>IMPORTANCE Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders. The previously published genome of M. globosa provided some of the first insights into Malassezia biology and its involvement in dandruff. Here, we present the genome of M. sympodialis, frequently isolated from patients with atopic eczema and healthy individuals. We combined comparative genomics with sequencing and functional characterization of specific genes in a population of clinical isolates and in closely related model systems. Our analyses provide insights into the evolution of allergens related to atopic eczema and the evolutionary trajectory of the machinery for sexual reproduction and meiosis. We hypothesize that M. sympodialis may undergo sexual reproduction, which has important implications for the understanding of the life cycle and virulence potential of this medically important yeast. Our findings provide a foundation for the development of genetic and genomic tools to elucidate host-microbe interactions that occur on the skin and to identify potential therapeutic targets.</p>