57 research outputs found

    Greenhouse gases and Nutrients: The Interactions Between Concurrent New Zealand Trading Systems

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    Emissions trading and nutrient trading interact in critical ways. The agricultural sector is a major emitter of both nutrients and greenhouse gases in New Zealand. Thus the simultaneous implementation of such systems will have a large impact on the farmers in affected catchments. Many of the mitigation options that are available to farmers, for example reducing animal numbers, will reduce both nutrient loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus the combined cost of control could be much less than the sum of the costs of the separate systems. The allocation of units under each system will also affect the same people. Monitoring systems for each pollutant could have common elements but could also impose a double burden. The interactions between the two systems will complicate the decision making process for farmers and need to be considered when the policies are designed so they are as complementary as possible.Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Trading efficiency in water quality markets

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    A crucial factor in the success of any water quality trading market is its ability to cost-effectively reallocate nutrient allowances from initial holders to those users who find them most valuable; the market's trading efficiency. We explore causes of and solutions to trading inefficiency by assessing the impact on participant transaction costs and the tradeoffs that occur as a result of policy design decisions. Differing impacts of baseline-credit and cap-and-trade markets, the impact of trading rules and monitoring regimes are discussed in this endeavour. Possible solutions of increased information flows and regulatory certainty are also discussed. We then apply this framework to three existing water quality trading schemes; two from the US, and one from New Zealand. We use this experience to extract general recommendations for policy makers looking to maximise trading efficiency when designing future water quality trading markets.Nutrient trading, trading efficiency, water quality markets, transaction costs, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, Health Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade,

    Variation in the Pronunciation of English by New Zealand School Children

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    This thesis presents a nationwide survey of selected phonemic and phonetic variables used by New Zealand school children. New Zealand English (NZE) is often described as homogeneous compared to other varieties. However, the discovery of dialect regions for playground vocabulary in New Zealand (Bauer & Bauer 2003) and reports of regional dialects in Australian English justify exploring variation in pronunciation across New Zealand. The data set for this research is a set of anonymous group interviews from 33 schools around the country. The relatively small amount of data from each location is a primary factor in determining the study’s methodology. Tokens from each school are tagged with socio-economic class and ethnicity ratings, based on the characteristics of the school as a whole. Both social and regional factors are considered as potential explanations for the patterns of variation that are revealed. All data sets have variation of some kind, as this was a criterion for including them as part of the research. The nature of the data set limits the number and type of variables suitable for investigation. The completed research consists of auditory studies of four features and acoustic analyses of two. These are, respectively, non-pre-vocalic /r/, linking /r/, TH-fronting, voicing of the final segment in with, FOOT fronting, and FOOT and THOUGHT neutralisation before /l/. The study also includes six small surveys of lexical pronunciations, though these do not contain enough data to contribute to findings about regional and social variation among the young speakers. Factors affecting the variables’ distributions in the data set are complex, and often appear to interact as explanations for the findings. Two variables, non-pre-vocalic /r/ in Otago and Southland and voicing in the final segment of with, are best described as regionally variable, while ethnicity is a primary factor in the distributions of three variables: TH-fronting, linking /r/ and non-pre-vocalic /r/ in the North Island. Socio-economic class appears to influence the distributions of linking /r/ and TH-fronting. The final discussion explores potential sources for future regional variation in NZE. Social factors such as socio-economic class and Māori and Pasifika populations are unevenly distributed in New Zealand, and are predictable catalysts for potential regional variation in NZE. The statistical analyses presented in this thesis indicate that both these factors contribute to regional differences in the data set. The discussion also considers borrowing, geographic isolation and variables’ stigma and prestige as factors in their distributions

    The domain specificity of intertemporal choice in pinyon jays

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    When choosing between a piece of cake now versus a slimmer waistline in the future, many of us have difficulty with self-control. Food-caching species, however, regularly hide food for later recovery, sometimes waiting months before retrieving their caches. It remains unclear whether these long-term choices generalize outside of the caching domain. We hypothesized that the ability to save for the future is a general tendency that cuts across different situations. To test this hypothesis, we measured and experimentally manipulated caching to evaluate its relationship with operant measures of self-control in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus). We found no correlation between caching and self-control at the individual level, and experimentally increasing caching did not influence self-control. The self-control required for caching food, therefore, does not carry over to other foraging tasks, suggesting that it is domain specific in pinyon jays

    The domain specificity of intertemporal choice in pinyon jays

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    When choosing between a piece of cake now versus a slimmer waistline in the future, many of us have difficulty with self-control. Food-caching species, however, regularly hide food for later recovery, sometimes waiting months before retrieving their caches. It remains unclear whether these long-term choices generalize outside of the caching domain. We hypothesized that the ability to save for the future is a general tendency that cuts across different situations. To test this hypothesis, we measured and experimentally manipulated caching to evaluate its relationship with operant measures of self-control in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus). We found no correlation between caching and self-control at the individual level, and experimentally increasing caching did not influence self-control. The self-control required for caching food, therefore, does not carry over to other foraging tasks, suggesting that it is domain specific in pinyon jays

    Psychometric evaluation of a short measure of social capital at work

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    BACKGROUND: Prior studies on social capital and health have assessed social capital in residential neighbourhoods and communities, but the question whether the concept should also be applicable in workplaces has been raised. The present study reports on the psychometric properties of an 8-item measure of social capital at work. METHODS: Data were derived from the Finnish Public Sector Study (N = 48,592) collected in 2000–2002. Based on face validity, an expert unfamiliar with the data selected 8 questionnaire items from the available items for a scale of social capital. Reliability analysis included tests of internal consistency, item-total correlations, and within-unit (interrater) agreement by r(wg )index. The associations with theoretically related and unrelated constructs were examined to assess convergent and divergent validity (construct validity). Criterion-related validity was explored with respect to self-rated health using multilevel logistic regression models. The effects of individual level and work unit level social capital were modelled on self-rated health. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the scale was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). The r(wg )index was 0.88, which indicates a significant within-unit agreement. The scale was associated with, but not redundant to, conceptually close constructs such as procedural justice, job control, and effort-reward imbalance. Its associations with conceptually more distant concepts, such as trait anxiety and magnitude of change in work, were weaker. In multilevel models, significantly elevated age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of poor self-rated health (OR = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.24–2.61 for the women and OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 2.56–3.50 for the men) were observed for the employees in the lowest vs. highest quartile of individual level social capital. In addition, low social capital at the work unit level was associated with a higher likelihood of poor self-rated health. CONCLUSION: Psychometric techniques show our 8-item measure of social capital to be a valid tool reflecting the construct and displaying the postulated links with other variables

    Interoception and Autonomic Correlates during Social Interactions. Implications for Anorexia

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    The aim of this study is to investigate the bodily-self in Restrictive Anorexia, focusing on two basic aspects related to the bodily self: autonomic strategies in social behavior, in which others’ social desirability features, and social cues (e.g., gaze) are modulated, and interoception (i.e., the sensitivity to stimuli originating inside the body). Furthermore, since previous studies carried out on healthy individuals found that interoception seems to contribute to the autonomic regulation of social behavior, as measured by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA), we aimed to explore this link in anorexia patients, whose ability to perceive their bodily signal seems to be impaired. To this purpose, we compared a group of anorexia patients (ANg; restrictive type) with a group of Healthy Controls (HCg) for RSA responses during both a resting state and a social proxemics task, for their explicit judgments of comfort in social distances during a behavioral proxemics task, and for their Interoceptive Accuracy (IA). The results showed that ANg displayed significantly lower social disposition and a flattened autonomic reactivity during the proxemics task, irrespective of the presence of others’ socially desirable features or social cues. Moreover, unlike HCg, the autonomic arousal of ANg did not guide behavioral judgments of social distances. Finally, IA was strictly related to social disposition in both groups, but with opposite trends in ANg. We conclude that autonomic imbalance and its altered relationship with interoception might have a crucial role in anorexia disturbances
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